Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory Our third theory of Learning P36-37 Green Pack P339-342 Brain Text Book
By the end of today’s session You will be able toYou will learn the meaning of the following key terms... Describe Social Learning Theory green pack See page 1 green pack Define the Approach (iii) Content (d) Explain Explain gender development in terms of SLT Content (E) Imitation Modelling Observation Vicarious reinforcement Identification Shaping
What does this advert suggest about children’s attitudes and behaviour? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8tcnF_Styw
Behaviourism SR Behaviourists aren’t interested in what happens in between S and R. They don’t think it is relevant!
Social learning theory SRO Social Learning Theorists say important things take place in the mind of the organism that mediate between S and R. Human’s aren't the same as animals. They say we do need to know about a person’s mental processes.
Bandura agreed with the behaviourist learning theories Classical conditioning Operant conditioning But He was interested in The mediating processes between stimulus & response Observation The role of Observation in learning
Social learning Theory Bandura’s research in the 1960’s suggested that children seem to learn by observation and imitation without being directly reinforced. He called this ……
He suggested that social learning could be broken down into stages Modelling Identification Observation Imitation Reinforcement
Modelling We model ourselves on other people We choose our own role models This is a COGNITIVE PROCESS. People actively seek out and decide who they want to be like. Copying the behaviour of a chosen person - a ‘role model’ depends on a number of factors.
Who makes an effective role model? Same gender Same age/slightly older Higher status/powerful Admired or/and respected Popular Attractive Someone we can identify with
Observation We have to notice the behaviour (GIVE ATTENTION) and remember what we’ve seen (RETENTION)
Imitation This is simply copying behaviour and is the fastest type of learning in humans. Behaviour may be imitated because it is seen as rewarding in some way.
Bandura believed that four criteria need to be met for imitation to occur 1. Attention to the role model 2. Retention of the observed behaviour 3. Reproduction of the target behaviour 4. Motivation to imitate the observed behaviour
Restrictions on imitation So not all behaviour is likely to be imitated. According to SLT, the two conditions for performing a behaviour are: Reproduction Motivation
Why do we imitate? What??? Observe behaviour being reinforced in other people Vicarious reinforcements
Vicarious Reinforcement Is a form of indirect learning We copy someone's behaviour because of the particular outcome it had for that person. Thus, we learn from observing other peoples experiences
Self - efficacy In order to imitate, children need the belief that they have the capacity to imitate a behaviour they have observed. They also need Reinforcement of that behaviour to keep them from extinguishing the learned behaviour. Reinforcement strengthens behaviour with positive consequences.
Supporting Evidence Aim: Dweck et al (1978) observed teachers use of negative and positive feedback in the classroom. Method: 79 children were observed in the classroom twice a week for 5 weeks. Observers were blind to the purpose of the experiment The teacher’s verbal responses to the children were observed: whether feedback is related to work/behaviour, whether it was positive or negative, whether is was related to content/presentation (i.e. neatness). Results: Boys tended to receive positive reinforcement for content, whilst girls for neatness. The pattern was reversed for negative comments. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that teachers do respond in different ways to boys and girls.
Discussion points Who would you say is a role model for young boys? Who is a role model for young girls these days? How might parents encourage sex appropriate behaviours? Do you think mothers and fathers differ in how concerned they are about sex appropriate behaviour? What makes children continue to copy certain behaviours? Do you think other children encourage sex typed behaviours?
Check A group of students have a disagreement about which of the three definitions below can be applied to the terms 1)Modelling 2)Reinforcement 3)Identification a)A person’s desire to be like another person or to be part of a particular social group b)The process by which a response is strengthened c)A procedure whereby a person observes another person and then attempts to imitate his or her behaviour.
Activity Time 1.Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) 2.For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT green pack 3.Complete the gap fill on p38 of your green pack green pack 4.Complete the terminology Sorting task onp37 of your green pack Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development - Complete p40 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development
TASK REMINDER 1.Use your text book to read and make notes on Social Learning Theory (pages 339-342) 2.For next lesson be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of SLT green pack 3.Complete the gap fill on p38 of your green pack green pack 4.Complete the Sorting task on onp37 of your green pack 5.Extension Activity: Consider how SLT could be used to explain gender development p40 in your pack Stretch & Challenge: Compare & contrast how the psychodynamic, biological and Learning approach explain gender development Learning Objectives You should now be able to Describe Social Learning Theory You will be able to define the following key terms... Imitation Modelling Observation Vicarious reinforcement Identification You should be able to explain gender identification in terms of SLT
Top five things you have learned today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HW: Complete today’s learning activities. Read ahead. It’s Bandura’s Bo Bo doll study next (BTB p350).
Learning Approach Key study Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)
By the end of today’s session You will be able toYou will recap... Describe Describe (APRC) the ‘Bo Bo’ doll study by Bandura Ross and Ross (1961) Evaluate Evaluate (GRAVE) the study by Bandura Ross and Ross (1961) Green Pack See p1 Green Pack Terminology associated with Laboratory Experiments and experimental design You will have considered how observation can be used as a way of gathering data
Before we begin……. 1List two behaviours you think might be learned by watching others 2List two behaviours you think could not be learned in this way
And now lets think! Which type of learning best explains how we display aggression? Can aggressive behaviour be learned by observation? See your task slip – time to think creatively!
Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Bandura, Ross & Ross (1961)
Aims 1.To investigate whether participants exposed to an aggressive model would reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of the models 2.To investigate if boys would be more predisposed than girls towards imitating aggression
Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study The participants 72 72 children (Stanford University nursery school) 36 boys & 36 girls age range 37 months - 69 months 4 years 4 months Mean age 52 months (4 years 4 months)
Method - an experiment there were three conditions 24 children in each condition
The THREE CONDITIONS Non aggressive condition Aggressive condition Control condition
Participants Participants in the experimental and control conditions were matched individually on ratings of their aggressive behaviour in social interactions in their nursery school Participants were rated by both the teacher and the experimenter - both of whom knew the children well Physical Aggression 1 – 5 Verbal aggression 1-5
Confederates Two adults: one male, one female served in the role as the model One female experimenter conducted the study for all 72 children
male 6 boys saw aggressive male male 6 boys saw non-aggressive male female 6 boys saw aggressive female female 6 boys saw non-aggressive female
female 6 girls saw aggressive female female 6 girls saw non-aggressive female male 6 girls saw aggressive male male 6 girls saw non-aggressive male
Level 1 Independent Variable (IV) aggressive or non-aggressive role model Level 2 Independent variable (IV) Same sex or opposite sex role model Level 3 Independent variable…?
Question What type of experimental design did Bandura use? What type of research method did Bandura use?
Write a TESTABLE two-tailed hypothesis for the study Write a TESTABLE one-tailed hypothesis for the study
In order to ensure that each group contained equally aggressive children they were all rated for aggression before the experiment Children were rated for 1.physical aggression 2. verbal aggression 3.aggression to inanimate objects 4.aggression inhibition (self control)
The Procedure Phase one of the experiment Modelling the behaviour phase Children were taken one at a time to a separate part of the building by the female experimenter for…
Phase 1 - Modelling The child was sat in one corner of the room and was encouraged to play with toys – potato printing and tinker toys. The model was sat in another corner. The model also played with toys. Either in a subdued way or aggressively depending on the experimental condition.
Procedure Non-aggressive Condition The model assembled the tinker toys in a non- aggressive manner and ignored the Bobo doll Aggressive Condition The model began by assembling the Tinker Toys for about a minute. The model then turned to Bobo and spent the remaining time being aggressive towards it
procedure The model performed a number of distinctive aggressive acts Physical Aggression The model lay Bobo on its side and sat on it then punched it repeatedly on the nose The model hit Bobo on the head with the mallet The model tossed Bobo in the air aggressively then kicked it around the room Verbal Aggressive Statements ‘Sock him in the nose’ ‘Hit him down’ ‘Pow’ ‘Kick him’ Verbal Non-Aggressive Statements ‘He sure is a tough fella’
Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study What happened then? Phase two of the experiment The Arousal phase This was necessary to provoke the children
The children were intentionally upset In phase 2 the child was taken into a separate room laid out with a wonderful array of brand new toys. Once the child had started to play with the toys they were told they had to stop…as these toys were intended for other children. This upset many of the children
Bandura Ross & Ross The BOBO doll study What happened then? Phase three of the experiment The Observation phase
What was observed? Imitative physical & verbal aggression – i.e. what was copied. Non-imitative physical & verbal aggression – i.e. what the child made up themselves
Test for Imitation Participants were then taken to the experimental room This room contained a variety of toys of Aggressive toys A mallet and peg board Two dart guns A tether ball with a face painted on it, hung from the ceiling
Non-aggressive toys Tea set Crayons Colouring paper Dolls Farm animals Cars and trucks As a control, the toys were placed in a fixed order for each of the sessions
Controlled observation conducted under laboratory conditions The participant spent 20 minutes in this experimental room The participants behaviour was rated using predetermined response categories It was rated by observers who observed via a one way mirror
Procedure Behaviour was rated using TIME SAMPLING Behaviour was rated every 5 seconds during the 20 minute session (using an electronic timer) 240 response units were recorded for each participant The male model scored all 72 sessions Half the participants were also scored by a second observer Inter-rater reliability was high – the correlation coefficient being in the.90s
Recap - 4 measures were obtained Imitation of physical aggression Imitation of verbal aggression Imitative non-aggressive verbal response (‘he sure is a tough fella’) Novel aggressive acts
Question What was the total number of participants? a.32 b.42 c.52 d.62 e.72 f.82 Answer 72 – 36 boys and 36 girls
http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Pr0OTCVtHbU&feature=relat ed
The results IMITATION IMITATION - the children in the aggressive condition imitated many of the modelled physical and verbal aggressive behaviours They also imitated non-aggressive behaviours
Results Aggressive Non-aggressive F modelM modelF modelM model Female pps 188.8.131.52.0 Male pps 12.4184.108.40.206 Imitation of Physical aggression
Results Aggressive Non-aggressive F modelM modelF modelM model Female pps 13.72.00.30.0 Male pps 4.3220.127.116.11 Imitation of Verbal Aggression
Results Aggressive Non-aggressive F modelM modelF modelM model Female pps 18.104.22.168.4 Male pps16.236.726.122.3 Non-imitative aggression
The children in the NON- aggressive condition imitated very few of the modelled behaviour. 70% had zero scores.
the children in the non- aggressive condition spent more time playing with the toys (dolls etc.) also more time doing nothing
The children in the aggressive condition displayed MUCH more non-imitative (non-copied) aggressive behaviour – in other words they just played a lot more aggressively!
GENDER RESULTS Boys imitated more physical aggression (but not verbal) Boys were more aggressive after watching the MALE aggressive model Girls were more verbally aggressive after watching the FEMALE aggressive model
Question How did they check that the two observers were recording the behaviour in the same way A) by testing for inter-rater reliability B) by testing for experimenter bias C) by testing for demand characteristics D) By testing for extraneous variables Answer A) inter-rater reliability
Question Which of the following are aims of the experiment? a)To investigate whether participants exposed to the non- aggressive model would produce acts resembling those of their models b)To investigate whether participants exposed to aggressive models would reproduce aggressive acts resembling those of their models c)To investigate if boys would be more predisposed towards imitating aggression than girls d)To investigate whether children enjoy observing and imitating aggressive behaviour Answers b & c
Analysing the data Which statistical test could Bandura have used? Mann-Whitney U test Name the conditions required for this test to be used 1.Test of difference 2.Ordinal data 3.Independent Measures design Write down the statement of significance if Bandura tested at the 5% level of significanceP<0.05
Bandura et al concluded that… Learning can take place by observation no classical or operant conditioning was required! Also that children are more likely to learn from same sex models!
Bandura suggested that Freud’s theory of identification may be used to explain how learning took place. The child first identifies with the same sex role model and then copies their behaviour.
Evaluation Thinking about the participants To whom can we generalise the findings? Thinking about the methodology Is the study reliable?
Evaluation Thinking about methodology Does this study have ecological validity? Does the study have internal validity?
Evaluation Thinking about BPS guidelines…….. WAS THIS STUDY ETHICAL?
Application This study started the debate about children learning aggressive behaviour from watching violence on TV. How might watching TV differ from the experience of the children in the Bandura experiment?
Activity Time Green Pack 1.Use your text book (pages 350-354) to help you complete pages 30-32 in your Green Pack Green Pack 2.Complete the gap fill on p34 of your Green Pack 3.Stretch & Challenge: 3.Stretch & Challenge: Collect a ‘spot the mistake’ sheet from me Extension Activity Extension Activity: Read the original study. See Stretch & Challenge box See the blog
Green Pack 1.Use your text book (pages 350-354) to help you complete pages 30-32 in your Green Pack Green Pack 2.Complete the gap fill on p34 of your Green Pack 3.Stretch & Challenge: 3.Stretch & Challenge: Collect a ‘spot the mistake’ sheet from me Extension Activity Extension Activity: Read the original study. See Stretch & Challenge box See the blog Learning objectives You should now be able to…. Describe Describe (APRC) the study by Bandura Ross and Ross (1961) Evaluate Evaluate (GRAVE) the study by Bandura Ross and Ross (1961) Have practiced using terminology associated with Laboratory Experiments and experimental design Activity Time
Top five things you have learned today 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Recap reinforcement Direct learning – behaviour is strengthened or weakened (repeated/not repeated) due to a particular response (i.e. reward/punishment) Rewards can be Internal (feelings) and external (materialistic) Positive reinforcement – A behaviour is followed by something pleasant Negative reinforcement – A behaviour is followed by the removal of something unpleasant Positive Punishment – The likelihood of a behaviour is reduced when followed by something unpleasant Negative Punishment - The likelihood of a behaviour is reduced by the removal something pleasant
SLT PPA Identification – with a role model PPA Attention – pay attention, notice the behaviour Retention – remember what you saw Reproduction – have the means to copy it Motivation – have the desire to copy it Imitation – copy it Reinforcement – can be internal or external (vicarious learning)
Exam questions 1.Define reinforcement (2 marks) 2.Define imitation (2 marks) 3.Define modelling and give two examples of why someone chooses to have particular role models. (3 marks) 4.Distinguish between the terms imitation and identification. (3 marks) 5.Distinguish between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement (3 marks)
Copy and complete – a later study by Bandura Modelling involves learning through ________. The adults behaviour was ______ in this study. The likelihood of imitation depended on the __________ of the adults actions. If the child saw the adults behaviour __________, this acted as _________ (indirect) learning/reinforcement,because the child then proceeded to imitate it. If the child saw the adult ________ for their actions, they were less likely to imitate them. observationimitatedvicarious consequencesrewardedpunished