Modeling The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
The Nature of Observational Learning: Albert Bandura’s Experiments Module 16: Observational Learning
Albert Bandura (1925- ) Canadian-American psychologist who is a major figure in the study of observational learning and several other important topics. Studies the consequences a model has on subjects Bobo Doll experiments The importance of “Sockeroo!”
Bobo Doll Experiments Children watched an adult model show aggressive behavior toward a bobo doll Three experimental conditions: –The model was praised. –The model was punished. –The model received no consequences for the aggressive behavior.
Self Efficacy Bandura believed that a person’s belief in his/her ability influences whether or not they can perform a certain behavior. Self-efficacy can also influence your goals, actions and successes (or failures) in life. If your self-efficacy is too low- you won’t challenge yourself If your self-efficacy is too high you won’t achieve your goal
Vicarious Learning Learning by seeing the consequences of another person’s behavior.
Modeling Requirements Bandura suggests four requirements for effective modeling to occur: –Attention –Retention –Ability to reproduce the behavior –Motivation
The Nature of Observational Learning: Mirror Neurons Module 16: Observational Learning
Mirror Neurons Brain cells located in the front of the brain that activate when a person performs certain actions or when the person observes another do so. The nerve cells activate when the person does a specific behavior and when they observe someone doing the same behavior.
Observational Learning in Everyday Life Aggression? Module 16: Observational Learning
There is a difference….. What is aggression? Behavior with intent to harm Can be physical or psychological What is Violence? Aggression intended to cause extreme injury
Relational Aggression= behavior intended to damage another person’s relationships Evidence of gender differences by age 4-5 Teacher ratings 12% boys= physical 3% girls=physical 0% boys=relational 26% girls= relational
General Aggression Model This broad theory says that aggression is a result of a chain of psychological processes, including: situational events, aggressive thoughts and feelings and interpretation of the situation. Must interpret the situation as one in which aggression is fitting behavior. Must interpret setting as a threat and arousal as anger.
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Highest degree of aggression occurs when solvable problem but presence of insults Revised theory Frustration is sometimes caused by aggression and aggression sometimes causes frustration
Aggression on the playground.. First 6 months of age= anger Ages 1-2= direct physical aggression School age= physical aggression changes to verbal aggression- physical still exists Children who are aggressive tend to be social rejected Some children see aggression as appropriate Some aggressive children are not rejected
APA Commission on Violence and Youth Higher levels of violence on TV are associated with increased acceptance of aggressive attitudes and behavior Children’s exposure to TV violence has harmful, lifelong consequences
APA Commission on Violence and Youth Portrayals of women as victims and minorities as aggressive lead more violence Viewing TV programming and commercials affects our concept of reality.