Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning Summary Question… Please write your individual response a piece of paper (remember to show analysis) –How does operant conditioning."— Presentation transcript:
Operant Conditioning Summary Question… Please write your individual response a piece of paper (remember to show analysis) –How does operant conditioning play a role in human behavior? Provide examples.
Cognitive Learning – Warm-Up Working with your group. Evaluate the following statement: –Children learn to be more violent from watching television violence. Write your response on your group response sheet. Please use the knowledge that you have gained from your reading.
Cognitive Learning – 3 types Emphasizes the role of mental processes Insight learning – Wolfgang Kohler –The light bulb just goes off! Latent Learning – Edward Tolman –No reward offered, but I’m still going to learn it. Observational Learning – Albert Bandura –“I learned it from watching you!”
Social Learning Theory Observational Learning –Occurs when an individual response is influence by the observation of other, called models. –Pioneered by Albert Bandura, who showed that conditioning does not have to be a project of direct experience. –Depends on the process of attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. –Stressed that performance of response depends on reinforcement. –Can explain why physical punishment tends to increase in children even when it is intended to do the opposite. –Can explain why exposure to media violence correlates with increased aggression.
Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura –aggression is learned through a process called behavior modeling –He stated that many individuals believed that aggression will produce reinforcements. Bobo Doll Experiment (Really a Study)
What the theory is missing… It does not adequately explain differences in gender. It can not be measured – NOT really an experiment – it was a correlational study!!! Aggression is complex – there are many of factors that play a role (i.e. environment, chemical imbalances, etc.)
Role of Biology & Culture in Learning… Learning is adaptive in that it enhances an individual's ability to survive. Biological constraints on learning including innate predispositions influence the likelihood that conditioning can occur. –Instinctive drift occurs when an organism's instinctive behavior makes it easier or harder to establish a learned response than it would be if the instinctive behavior were not present. Culture also influences the kind of learning that can occur, and the environment may limit learning opportunities
Violence in Children’s Media Hypothesis –Watching violent acts on television increases the likelihood of a child demonstrating violent behaviors. Operational definitions –Age group of children the class will be exploring –What constitutes a violent act?
Video Clips We are going to view three different cartoon clips For each clip, you must gather statistical evidence: –Record the type of media –Its title –The age it is feared toward –the number of violent acts
Gather Your Data Violent Acts Physical Violence (hitting, kicking, slapping, etc.) Emotional Violence (neglect, verbal abuse, teasing, etc.) Sexual Violence (harassment, sexual assault, statutory, etc. Bombs/Explosives Intolerance Drugs/Alcohol Animal Cruelty
Our findings… 1.According to your data, which cartoon was more violent? 2.Compare your data with the data of your group members? Why would people have different data after watching the same clip? 3.Discuss whether or not these acts contribute to the increase in violence in society today? 4.What are some possible confounding variables?
Part III - Viewpoints Please apply the following theories to the topic of violence in the media. Respond to the following questions: –What leads to violent behavior? –How might watching violent films/cartoons lead to an individual committing a violent act? –If a stage theory, what stage would the children watching the cartoons by in and how might that impact their behavior?
Behaviorist (Operant Conditioning “Skinner” or Classical Conditioning “Pavlov”) Social-Cognitive (Observational Learning “Bandura”) Psychodynamic (Psycho-Social Development “Erikson” or Psycho Sexual Development “Freud”) Humanistic (Hierarchy of Needs “Maslow”) Cognitive (Moral Development “Kohlberg”)
Part IV – Your Perspective Do you think that watching violent acts on television leads to committing violent acts? You must support your response with at least one of the previously mentioned approaches or evidence collected from an outside source. You should write your response on a separate piece of paper
Summary Question Please write your response on your group’s response sheet. Compare and contrast classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning. Be sure to address the mechanisms by which the three types of learning take place, and typical situations in which each might occur.
Panel Discussion Each group will be assigned a stance of the following issue: –A new elementary school has been proposed. The community is attempting to decide what type of learning structure should be in place. –Your group will either advocate for: a reliance on the principles of cognitive learning, especially observational learning, to establish appropriate student behavior and learning. a reliance on the principles of operant conditioning.
Group Roles Facilitator: Keep your group on task. You will only be given 20 minutes. Also, you will be able to ask pro and con questions. Expert: You will play the scientist that will advocate the groups point. Assistant: You will assist the scientist in advocating his/her point. Hostile Reporter: You will generate a list of questions to ask the opposing side. Public Relations Reporter: You will generate a list of questions to ask your expert.
Each Group Should Generate statements and points for the Expert and Assistant to use to argue the point. Generate a list of questions that challenge the opposing side. Generate a list of questions that will help your Expert and Assistant.
Rubric Staying On Task:10 Pts. Staying in Character:10 Pts. Familiarity with Position:10 Pts. Challenging Opposing Position: 10 Pts. Supporting your Position:10 Pts. –Total (50 points)
What Do You Think… Which learning structure do you really think would be most appropriate? What type of learning structure is in place at Reservoir High School?