Presentation on theme: "Part 4 Notes: The Fall of the Republic. After the Punic Wars 1. Rome becomes the superpower of the Western Mediterranean Sea after the Punic Wars 2. Seen."— Presentation transcript:
After the Punic Wars 1. Rome becomes the superpower of the Western Mediterranean Sea after the Punic Wars 2. Seen by other countries & societies as powerful, wealthy 3. Had many problems internally, even though they were recognized as a major power.
Major Internal Problems, 100 B.C. 1. Patricians still owned much of the land, still had the most important gov’t jobs & directed the military/wars. 2. Many plebeians were resentful of the gap between the two social classes/strikes & conflict happens between the 2 classes 3. The situation became worse by 100 b.c., when many small farmers began to lose their land b/c of heavy debt & poverty.
Plebian Farming Crisis 1. The Small Farmers: Extreme debt & poverty were caused by farms that were neglected (while men were forced to fight in wars) or destroyed by Hannibal’s troops 2. The Large Farmers: Large farms, like plantations, were called latifundia. Small farmers could not compete the large estate farms nor could they jobs b/c slaves did the work. These large farms were Patrician owned.
Result of Farming Crisis 1. Small farmers moved to the cities for work: found very little job options because of slaves. 2. Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus: two Senators (brothers) who advocated for the plebian farmers in the Senate. 3. They proposed land reform (change) in order to help out small plebeian farmers 4. Tiberius was murdered in 133 BC; seen as the first event in the beginning of the end of the Roman Republic. Gaius in 123 BC. 5. Were murdered by other Senators; no one did anything about it & the gov’t stayed the same.
The Military Crisis: General Marius 1. General Marius took it upon himself to help fix his soldier shortage & give poor men jobs 2. His solution to the farming crisis: **To enlist previous farmers as paid soldiers with the promise of land and a paycheck. Land given from the new provinces/territories being conquered by generals like Marius. 3. As a result, these men end up being loyal to their general, not Rome. It will divide Rome and cause a civil war. This tradition of paid soldiers by generals will last until 27 BC.
Civil War in Rome Rome ends up in a series of civil wars for the next 50 years. Different powerful Roman generals battle for power. By 60b.c., 3 generals formed an alliance: Crassus, Pompey, & Julius Caesar
Political Differences 1. Two divisions in Roman politics had developed: 1. Optimates—those that favored the interest of the wealthy 2. Populares—those that favored the interest of the masses 2. Pompey was an Optimate 3. Caesar was a Populare
First Triumvirate The three men end up forming a triumvirate: political alliance of 3 people The alliance was called the First Triumvirate All 3 men had very loyal armies in remote areas: Caesar-modern France (Gaul), Pompey-Spain, Crassus-Syria Caesar had become a hero to Rome’s lower classes Senators & others feared Julius Caesar’s popularity
The Beginning of the End In 53b.c., Crassus was killed in battle The Senate ordered both Pompey & Caesar to give up their armies & return home. Caesar knew the Senate favored Pompey over him, so he was faced with a hard choice: 1. Obey the Senate & risk death/prison at the hands of his rivals, 2. Return to Rome with his army & risk civil war
Caesar decided: he kept his loyal army & returned to Rome He marched into Italy by crossing the river Rubicon, today the word is used a sign of “point of no return” or not turning back. Pompey tried to stop him, but Caesar was the better general with good soldiers Caesar destroyed Pompey’s army by 48 b.c.
Caesar as dictator In 45 b.c, Caesar declared himself dictator, for life. This broke with the traditional role of dictator in Rome He strengthened his power with the people by making reforms to Rome 1. Change the tax system, better for the poor 2. Gave land to the poor in overseas colonies 3. Started building projects for jobs (not slaves)
Many Romans favored & supported Caesar Many government officials & politicians— especially the Senate—loathed him; they felt he wanted to be king with total power On March 15, 44 b.c., Caesar was stabbed to death at least 23 times during a Senate meeting. Some of these men Caesar thought were his allies. This day is known in history as the Ides of March (March 15 th in Latin)
After Caesar’s Death Civil war followed the death of Caesar One side were the men & their allies who killed Caesar, the others were Caesar’s generals- Antony & Lepidus- and Caesar’s grandnephew, Octavian The 3 defeated Caesar’s assassins & created the 2 nd Triumvirate Octavian—In Caesar’s will, he named Octavian his heir & adopted son
The Creation of the Roman Empire The 3 men starting arguing almost immediately & the defeat of Caesar’s enemies Lepidus retired, which left Antony & Octavian Antony fell in love with an Egyptian queen named Cleopatra & formed an alliance with her Octavian used this to declare war against Antony
In 31b.c. at the Battle of Actium, Octavian crushed the army/navy of Antony. Result: as Octavian approached Egypt, the couple committed suicide Octavian was now the only ruler of the broken Roman Republic.
End of Democracy, Road to an Empire Octavian knew the people didn’t want a king, but improvements in the gov’t. Therefore, he did not make himself a dictator for life, saw what had happened Caesar Octavian announced in 27 BC, that the gov’t would be restored with changes Octavian restored order, brought peace, & needed supplies back to Rome. He also created a professional Roman army, which stopped the loyalty issue & future wars b/t generals
Augustus: the 1 st Roman Emperor Octavian knew the republic had become too weak, corrupt & not centralized enough to solve Rome’s problems. He gave some power to the Senate, but slowly & carefully kept the majority of power for himself Octavian named his self “imperator” which in English is emperor, also meant revered in Latin. He was approved by the Senate in 27 BC His name was changed to Augustus, & from this point the Roman Empire was born