6 Rome survived political unrest to become the Roman Empire Reading StrategyRome survived political unrest to become the Roman EmpireMain IdeaMain IdeaMain IdeaSupporting DetailsSupporting DetailsSupporting Details
7 Trouble in the Republic The gap between the rich patricians and the poor plebeians grew, and farmers especially suffered.Latifunda were large farming estates created when wealthy Romans bought small farms.Farmers whose land had been bought traveled to cities to try to find jobs.
8 Trouble in the Republic Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two wealthy brothers who tried to reform government They were killed.Marius, a former military leader, was appointed counsel and promised land to poor men if they became soldiers.Sulla drove Marius out of Rome, declared himself dictator, and spent three years reforming government before resigning from office.
9 The Fall of the Republic What happened after Sulla stepped down from office?Men who saw Sulla gain power by using an army decided to follow the same path, and civil wars broke out.
10 Julius Caesar A triumvirate is a political alliance of three people. Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a triumvirate after Sulla left office.
11 Julius CaesarJulius Caesar marched on Rome and defeated Pompey’s forces after Crassus died in battle.Caesar declared himself dictator of Rome for life and made many changes to Rome.The Julian calendar was created during Caesar’s rule.
12 Julius CaesarThis calendar was changed slightly in A.D. 1582, but is basically still in use today.Caesar had many enemies as well as supporters.His enemies plotted to kill him and succeeded on March 15, called the “Ides of March.”
13 The Fall of the Republic What is the origin of the phrase “crossing the Rubicon” and what does it mean?The phrase refers to Caesar’s return to Italy. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar knew he would begin a civil war and that he would either be victorious or be destroyed. Today it means passing a point of no return.
14 Rome Becomes an EmpireOctavian was Caesar’s grandnephew, who had inherited Caesar’s wealth.Antony and Lepidus were two of Caesar’s top generals.Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate, although the triumvirate began to quarrel immediately.Antony fell in love with Cleopatra VII and formed an alliance with her.
15 Rome Becomes an EmpireOctavian declared war on Antony to keep him from taking over the republic.Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium.
16 Rome Becomes an EmpireCicero was a political leader, writer, and public speaker who favored representative government and supported Octavian.Octavian restored the republic with some reforms and took the title Augustus, meaning “revered one.”This began the Roman Empire.
17 The Fall of the Republic How was Octavian like Caesar? How was he different?Like Caesar, Octavian declared himself ruler for life. However, he also knew that many people favored a republic. Octavian reformed government so that a Senate with limited power existed while he remained in charge.
18 The Fall of the Republic What is a triumvirate?a political alliance of three people
19 The Fall of the Republic Who was Cicero, and how did he influence the writers of the United States Constitution?Cicero was apolitical leader whose ideas on a representative government with limited powers influenced the U.S. Constitution.
20 The Fall of the Republic Summarize What reforms did the Gracchus brothers suggest?The Gracchus brothers wanted the government to take back public land and give it to landless farmers. Landholding senators opposed their proposals.
21 The Fall of the Republic Analyze What was the “bread and circuses” policy, and how did Roman politicians benefit from it?The “bread and circuses’ policy was the use of cheap food and free entertainment to win support from the poor.
22 The Fall of the Republic Analyze What reforms did Julius Caesar put in place that increased his popularity with poor and working-class Romans?Caesar provided land for the poor and created new jobs. He also ordered landholders to hire more free workers.