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The Fall of the Republic

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Presentation on theme: "The Fall of the Republic"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Fall of the Republic
Chapter 8 Section 3 The Fall of the Republic

2 Section Overview This section describes the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic.

3 Locating Places Rubicon Actium

4 Meeting People Julius Caesar Octavian Antony Cicero Augustus

5 Building Vocabulary Latifundia triumvirate

6 Rome survived political unrest to become the Roman Empire
Reading Strategy Rome survived political unrest to become the Roman Empire Main Idea Main Idea Main Idea Supporting Details Supporting Details Supporting Details

7 Trouble in the Republic
The gap between the rich patricians and the poor plebeians grew, and farmers especially suffered. Latifunda were large farming estates created when wealthy Romans bought small farms. Farmers whose land had been bought traveled to cities to try to find jobs.

8 Trouble in the Republic
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two wealthy brothers who tried to reform government They were killed. Marius, a former military leader, was appointed counsel and promised land to poor men if they became soldiers. Sulla drove Marius out of Rome, declared himself dictator, and spent three years reforming government before resigning from office.

9 The Fall of the Republic
What happened after Sulla stepped down from office? Men who saw Sulla gain power by using an army decided to follow the same path, and civil wars broke out.

10 Julius Caesar A triumvirate is a political alliance of three people.
Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a triumvirate after Sulla left office.

11 Julius Caesar Julius Caesar marched on Rome and defeated Pompey’s forces after Crassus died in battle. Caesar declared himself dictator of Rome for life and made many changes to Rome. The Julian calendar was created during Caesar’s rule.

12 Julius Caesar This calendar was changed slightly in A.D. 1582, but is basically still in use today. Caesar had many enemies as well as supporters. His enemies plotted to kill him and succeeded on March 15, called the “Ides of March.”

13 The Fall of the Republic
What is the origin of the phrase “crossing the Rubicon” and what does it mean? The phrase refers to Caesar’s return to Italy. By crossing the Rubicon, Caesar knew he would begin a civil war and that he would either be victorious or be destroyed. Today it means passing a point of no return.

14 Rome Becomes an Empire Octavian was Caesar’s grandnephew, who had inherited Caesar’s wealth. Antony and Lepidus were two of Caesar’s top generals. Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate, although the triumvirate began to quarrel immediately. Antony fell in love with Cleopatra VII and formed an alliance with her.

15 Rome Becomes an Empire Octavian declared war on Antony to keep him from taking over the republic. Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium.

16 Rome Becomes an Empire Cicero was a political leader, writer, and public speaker who favored representative government and supported Octavian. Octavian restored the republic with some reforms and took the title Augustus, meaning “revered one.” This began the Roman Empire.

17 The Fall of the Republic
How was Octavian like Caesar? How was he different? Like Caesar, Octavian declared himself ruler for life. However, he also knew that many people favored a republic. Octavian reformed government so that a Senate with limited power existed while he remained in charge.

18 The Fall of the Republic
What is a triumvirate? a political alliance of three people

19 The Fall of the Republic
Who was Cicero, and how did he influence the writers of the United States Constitution? Cicero was apolitical leader whose ideas on a representative government with limited powers influenced the U.S. Constitution.

20 The Fall of the Republic
Summarize What reforms did the Gracchus brothers suggest? The Gracchus brothers wanted the government to take back public land and give it to landless farmers. Landholding senators opposed their proposals.

21 The Fall of the Republic
Analyze What was the “bread and circuses” policy, and how did Roman politicians benefit from it? The “bread and circuses’ policy was the use of cheap food and free entertainment to win support from the poor.

22 The Fall of the Republic
Analyze What reforms did Julius Caesar put in place that increased his popularity with poor and working-class Romans? Caesar provided land for the poor and created new jobs. He also ordered landholders to hire more free workers.

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