Presentation on theme: "Movement within Scotland. Introduction Migration is the movement of people within a country. In Scotland between 1830 and 1930 this internal migration."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Migration is the movement of people within a country. In Scotland between 1830 and 1930 this internal migration saw a shift from the poorer rural areas to a life with more possibilities in the increasingly industrialised urban areas. It is believed that this movement arose as these rural areas saw a great deal of deprivation and urban areas appeared to offer opportunities for employment in factories and industry.
Life in the Lowlands of Scotland Rapid population growth in the Lowlands was a cause for concern as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Concern existed at the time that, if the population continued to rise in vast numbers in areas with fewer farms, a severe famine would occur. Farming methods were altered and additional labour was hired, thus moving some of the agricultural workers. Consequently, agricultural land underwent a change. Land was divided into medium- and large-sized estates and then carved up into individual farms, employing up to six men – a shift away from tenant farmers. (During harvest time additional labourers were employed – chiefly Irish immigrants.) In conclusion, fewer labourers were required so people sought work in nearby towns, thus adding to the declining rural population.
Lowlands (continued) After 1840, the population in the rural areas continued to decline at a rapid rate as a consequence of greater efficiency. Farming saw a rise in labour-saving equipment such as the self-binding reaper and the potato digger. Furthermore, wage levels in the industrial sector were far higher than in agriculture, often as high as 50 per cent more. The allure of living in towns was also a feature of this increased urbanisation. Between 1861 and 1891, rural employment in the Lowlands fell by around a third. This pattern continued into the 20th century and by 1914 only 14 per cent of males were employed in agriculture.
A shift from the Highlands Many historians have claimed that the movement away from the Highlands came as a result of industrialisation and the desire to gain one of the many opportunities and improve their standards of living. Up-to-date research has revealed this is not a true reflection of events. This theory is applicable to the south-east Highlands. There was a great variety of shift patterns at this time. There was little movement from the islands and the north-west.
South and east Highlands Decline in farm labour saw a shift towards fishing villages and towns. This was insufficient to absorb the excess labour, and thus some were drawn to the urban areas in the Central Belt. Some remained behind, almost destitute as a consequence of being poorly educated.
The north and the Islands The north and the Islands depended on the land, namely the potato, as a means of survival. A shift came in the 1850s when there was a temporary migration. Statistics: – It was estimated that in the 1850s a half to two-thirds of the income of the inhabitants of Skye came from agricultural work in the Lowlands. – In the 1870s, the herring industry drew in migrants with as many as 5000 men and women arriving in the fishing ports of Caithness and Aberdeenshire during the catching season. By 1891 three out of four of the population depended directly or indirectly on fishing alone or on a combination of fishing and crofting. This area managed to survive as a consequence of temporary migration bringing back money and provisions to the family and wider community. After the First World War a irreversible trend began. These areas lost a quarter of their overall population. This could be to do with their role in the First World War, the lack of temporary labour required as well as a severe depression in the 1920s and 1930s. These groups tended to settle in and around the major cities of Glasgow.