Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Migration and Development

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Migration and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration and Development

2 The Nature and Significance of Migration in Development
Initially migration from rural to urban areas was viewed as a favorable development Natural process in which surplus labor was gradually drawn to urban industrial areas Socially desirable to improve and enhance an individual’s growth and knowledge But now rates of rural to urban migration far exceed rates of job creation and surpass absorptive ability of industry

3 Dilemmas of Migration Migration exacerbates rural-urban structural imbalance—causes urban surplus labor Depletes rural areas of valuable human capital Urban job creation is more difficult to create than rural employment Central to development dilemma because policies affecting rural and urban incomes will drive migration In turn this affects geographical and structural pattern of economic activity

4 Consequences of Population Movement
A>>>>1000>>>>B- results in rise of average age and death rate in Region A; birth rate falls and relieves population pressure Gross Migration: +10,500 (Inward movement) -8,500 (Outward movement) Net Migration is 2,000 but Gross Migration is 19,000 +10,500 and -10,500: Net Migration is ? Gross Migration is?

5 Types of Movement Migration- movement of people from origin to destination with intent to remain permanently Circulation- movement from location to another but the intent is to return to the origin. Stays in a destination may be up to six months or longer for purposes of crop harvesting or other temporary or seasonal work Commuting- daily movement between residence and place of work

6 Push-Pull Model of Movement- Everett Lee
Origin Destination Barriers: Cost-Perception-Information + _ + _+++ ++ _ + + _ + + _ _++ +

7 Factors in the Migration Process
Migration is a selective process- affects individuals with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics Social- desire of migrants to break away from tradition Physical- migration sometimes forced by environmental conditions or catastrophic events (floods, drought, typhoons) Demographic- high rates of rural growth producing landlessness Cultural- security of extended family in destination Communications and Transport- growing ease of learning about and moving to a destination

8 Factors in Migration Process
But the major reason, by general consensus, is ECONOMIC Push from subsistence agriculture to higher wages Potential reverse migration toward rural areas as result of high unemployment brought about by lack of employment

9 Migrant Characteristics
Demographic- young men and women between ages 15-24 Recently proportion of young women has increased as educational opportunities have improved- especially in Latin America and Southeast Asia Female migration of two types: ‘associational’ migration following ‘primary’ male migrant and ‘unattached females’ Education- clear association between migration and educational attainment: more education > greater propensity to migrate But poorly educated also move in search of better life

10 Migrant Characteristics
Economic- for many years migrants were poor landless and unskilled Now with greater development of industrial bases and more services especially , migrants seem to come from all strata with majority being very poor Migration stimulated by rational economic considerations of relative benefits and costs, mostly financial but also psychological

11 Movement Characteristics
Migrants generally move shorter distances rather than longer ones. Why? More familiar with nearer opportunities and less costly Counterstream Movement- Stream is defined as movement from origin to destination; counterstream is reverse from destination to origin Efficiency is the ratio of the Stream to Counterstream: high effciency means virtually all stay at destination; low efficiency means that many return to origin Stepwise Migration- move in stages from smaller city to medium sized to eventually larger city. Why? Cost efficient and psychologically easier

Download ppt "Migration and Development"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google