Presentation on theme: "understanding core differences between phrases and clauses"— Presentation transcript:
1 understanding core differences between phrases and clauses Phrase vs. Clauseunderstanding core differences between phrases and clauses
2 Phrases & Clauses Phrases and clauses can be confusing. Both are groups of words.Both are parts of sentences.Learning the differences will help you write strong sentences and understand punctuation rules.
3 Phrases A phrase does not have both a subject and a verb. There are many types of phrases. Some of these types include, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, prepositional, and interjection phrases. Others are gerund, participial, infinitive, and appositive phrases.
4 Parts of Speech Phrases There are 8 parts of speech. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and interjections can be phrases.Of those, the most common type of phrase is a prepositional phrase.Lets review them all.
5 Noun Phrase Bryan and his friends gave the waiter a generous tip. “Bryan and his friends” is the noun phrase.It functions as the subject of the sentence.
6 Verb Phrase Kara should have arrived. “should have arrived” is the verb phrase.Oftentimes, the verb phrase only includes the main verb and its auxillaries.
7 Adjective PhraseStudents happy about the snow day were well rested on Tuesday.“happy about the snow day” is an adjective phrase, modifying the noun “students.”
8 Adverb Phrase That group works really well together. “really well together” is an adverb phrase, explaining how the group works.
9 Prepositional Phrase In the morning, I need to charge my phone. “In the morning” is the prepositional phrase.A prepositional phrase includes the preposition, any modifiers, and its object.
10 Interjection Phrase “I went to the park alone.” “Oh, really!” “Oh, really!” is an interjection in a phrase format.Interjection phrases are normally short and referenced as simply “interjections.”
11 Verbal Phrases Verbal phrases contain the verbal and their modifiers. Verbals include infinitives, gerunds, and participles.
12 Infinitive Phrases The dog loves to sleep on the couch. “to sleep on the couch” is the infinitive phrase.
13 Gerund Phrases Sleeping on the couch is the dog’s favorite pastime. “Sleeping on the couch” is the gerund phrase. It functions as the subject of the sentence.
14 Participial Phrases Sleeping on the couch, the dog snored. “Sleeping on the couch” is a participial phrase modifying “dog.”Note that it is at the start of the sentence and ends in a comma before the sentence’s subject, “dog.”
15 Appositive PhraseAn appositive phrase renames a nearby noun. It is normally set off with commas.The television, an outdated model, quit working.“an outdated model” is the appositive phrase, renaming “television.”
16 Review of PhrasesPhrases are groups of words without a subject and a verb.They are functioning as a unit.
17 Clauses Clauses have both a subject and a verb. A clause will have a subject and a predicate.Clauses can be independent or dependent.
18 Independent ClauseAn independent clause is “independent” from other words – it can function alone.It is a simple sentence.
19 Dependent ClauseA dependent clause depends upon the rest of the sentence (an independent clause) to make sense – it cannot function alone.A dependent clause is not a sentence. If it is written alone as a sentence, it is actually a sentence fragment.
20 Dependent Clause: Beginnings A dependent clause usually begins with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction.Sometimes a dependent clause does not have an introductory word.
21 Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns can introduce a dependent clause. Relative pronouns include: who, whose, whom, which, that.
22 Relative PronounsStacy wanted to know whose car stalled in the driveway.“whose car stalled in the driveway” is a dependent clause. It begins with “whose.” Its subject is “car” and the verb is “stalled.”
23 Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions can introduce a dependent clause.Subordinating conjunctions include: after, although, as, as if, as long as, as much as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, how, if, in order that, lest, since, though, till, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, while
24 Subordinating Conjunctions While Tami mails the letter, Troy will sweep the sidewalk.“While Tami mails the letter” is a dependent clause. It begins with “While.” Its subject is “Tami” and the verb is “mails.”
25 Dependent ClausesSometimes, dependent clauses do not have an introductory word.The word “that” normally would be appropriate but is omitted. (This is ok!)Give the medicine (that) he requested to him, please.
26 Clauses - PunctuationWhen an independent clause begins a sentence and is then followed by a dependent clause, a comma is probably not necessary.Ryan put the dog in the kennel until his mom came home.
27 Clauses - PunctuationIf a dependent clause begins a sentence, use a comma to separate it from the independent clause.The above sentence is an example of this.
28 Why do I need this?Aside from punctuating sentences correctly, knowing how clauses work can make your writing better.Join two independent clauses to provide a transition for a clear reading.
29 Combining - ExampleJack went to the pantry. His mom asked him to get the flour.Combined: Because his mom asked him to get the flour, Jack went to the pantry.
30 Review of Dependent Clauses Anytime you see a subject and a verb, decide if it is an independent or a dependent clause.Be sure that you have correctly punctuated it.When writing, vary the types of clauses you use to spark interest.
31 Review of Independent Clauses An independent clause is a simple sentence. It has a subject and a verb.A compound sentence will have two independent clauses joined by a correlative or coordinating conjunction.A semicolon can also join two independent clauses.
32 Telling the Difference If you can spot a phrase and a clause, you will be able to determine the type of a sentence and the appropriate punctuation.You will also be able to move phrases and clauses to express yourself in writing.
33 RememberPhrases and clauses are both units of words, but they function differently.Knowing what the groups of words are will help you punctuate them correctly and use them to better your writing.