Presentation on theme: "Gerunds and Gerund Phrases"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gerunds and Gerund Phrases 8th Grade EnglishClauses and Verbals Unit
2 Today’s Notes: April 8, 2011 VII. Gerunds A. A participial form of the verb used as a noun.B. A gerund phrase includes the gerund and other words that complete its meaning.
3 Yesterday… We learned about participles and participial phrases. What can a participle be used as?How can you identify a:Present Participle?Past Participle?
4 Good…Today we are going to learn about the next verbal…a verb with an identity crisis…We are going to learn about Gerunds!
5 Who has my subject? What is the subject of these sentences? Dancing is the love of Tiffany’s life?Playing chess is Steve’s secret passion!
6 GerundsIn the previous lesson, you learned that a present or past participle may be used as an adjective.Well, a present participle is really, really confused…it can also be used as a noun!In this case, it is called a gerund!
7 GerundsA gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used as a noun.The playing field is one hundred yards long. (participle/adjective)Playing is our favorite activity (gerund)
8 GerundsA gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used as a noun.Like other nouns, a gerund can serve as the simple subject of a sentence. It can also be a direct object or the object of a preposition.It can be used, albeit infrequently, as a predicate noun.
9 Examples: Blocking requires strength. (Subject) The athletes enjoy exercising (Direct Object)They maintain endurance by running (Object of a Preposition)
10 Gerund PhrasesA gerund phrase is a group of words that includes a gerund and other words that complete its meaning.Ex. Kicking the ball takes skill.Ex. A team tries scoring a touchdown.A touchdown results from moving the ball across the goal.
11 Exercise A.Identify the gerund or gerund phrase.
12 Exercise A. A win requires earning more points than the opponent. Kicking earns points in two different ways in this sport.A team earns three points by kicking a field goal.Teams also try converting for one point after a touchdown.Defending the team’s own goal is crucial.
13 Exercise A. 6. A team’s defense features tackling. 7. Blocking is another important element of a good defense.8. Passing makes football exciting.9. Testing your skills is an important part of football.10. Skilled players increase spectators’ enjoyment by adding dramatic action to the game.
14 Gerunds and ItGerunds, like noun clauses, can always be replaced by the word it.Participles and Participial phrases NEVER can.Gerunds are ALWAYS singular so IT will always work!Ex. Rob enjoys swimming. Rob enjoys it.Ex. Rob is swimming in a meet today (doesn’t work)
15 But how do we know which is which? You can identify the three functions of –ing verb forms if you remember that a present participle can serve as a verb, an adjective, or as a noun (which is called a gerund)!Ask yourself…what is the participle doing?
16 Examples The Bears are winning the game (main verb) The winning team scores the most points (adjective)Winning is everything! (Gerund)
17 Exercise B.Find the verbal. Tell me if it is acting as a main verb, an adjective, or a gerund.
18 Exercise B. The coach or the captain chooses playing strategies. The quarterback does not like guessing the next play.The team members are hoping for a victory.Scoring in football can occur in four different ways.A team earns six points for crossing the opponent’s goal line.
20 Remember…A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used as a noun.A gerund phrase is a group of words that includes a gerund and other words that complete its meaning.You can replace a gerund with the word it and the sentence would still make sense.
21 Chapters 14/15 ListA sentence is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.A simple sentence has one complete subject and one complete predicate.The complete subject names whom or what the sentence is about.The complete predicate tells what the subject does or has. Sometimes it can also tell what the subject is or is like.A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences.Each simple sentence is called an independent, or main, clause.A main clause has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.A subordinate clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate but DOES NOT express a complete thought.It is always combined with a main clause.An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies or describes a noun or pronoun in the main clause of a complex sentence.An adjective clause is very similar to an appositive because it adds extra information to the sentence.An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun. Relative pronouns signal a subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone.An essential clause is an adjective clause that is necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear.Do NOT use commas to set off an essential clause from the rest of the sentence.Remove an essential clause and change the meaning of the sentence!A nonessential clause is an adjective clause that is not necessary to make the meaning of the sentence clear.Use commas to set off a nonessential clause from the rest of the sentence.An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that often modifies, or describes, the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence.An adverb clause tells how, when, where, why, or under what conditions the action occurs.Subordinating conjunctions signal an adverb clause, a subordinating conjunction!A Noun Clause is a subordinating clause that acts as a noun.A Noun clause can be used as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, or the object of a preposition.A participle is a verb that also can be used as a noun.A participial phrase is a participle, used with a group of words, that functions as an adjective.A gerund is a verb form that ends in –ing and is used as a noun.A gerund phrase is a group of words that includes a gerund and other words that complete its meaning.You can replace a gerund with the word it and the sentence would still make sense.