2 Phrases – a quick review Definition:According to Correct Writing, a phrase is a group of related words, generally having neither a subject nor a predicateIn other words, a phrase is NOT a sentence (because it has no subject or verb), but it is a related set of words
4 Types of Phrases Gerund Phrase Examples: Definition? Has a gerund, plus any complements or modifiersIt acts as a nounExamples:By swimming daily, Sue hoped to improve her backstrokeSwimming daily is the gerund phrase
5 Types of Phrases Participial Phrase Examples: PUNCTUATION NOTE Definition?Has a participle, plus any complements or modifiersIt acts as an adjectiveExamples:Disappointed by his best friend, Roger refused to speak to himDisappointed by his best friend is the participial phrasePUNCTUATION NOTEIntroductory ones are set off by commasNon-essential ones are set off by commas
6 Types of Phrases Infinitive Phrase Examples: Definition? Has a infinitive, plus any complements or modifiersIt acts as a noun, adjective or adverbExamples:She has a plane to catch at eight o’clockTo catch at eight o’clock is the infinitive phrase
7 Types of Phrases Absolute Phrase Examples: PUNCTUATION NOTE Definition?It is a noun and a participle togetherIt is not a subject, doesn’t modify anything, and is an independent phraseExamples:The bus having stopped, the tourists filed outThe bus having stopped is the absolute phraseThe theater being nearby, I decided to walkThe theater being nearby is the absolute phrasePUNCTUATION NOTEAn absolute phrase is always separate from the rest of the sentence by a comma.
8 Types of Phrases Prepositional Phrase Examples: Definition? Preposition followed by a noun or pronoun, plus any of its modifiersIt acts an adjective or adverbExamples:The plan of the house is very simpleOf the house is the prepositional phrase
9 Types of Phrases Appositive Phrase PUNCTUATION NOTE Definition? It is a type of Gerund, Infinitive, or Prepositional phrase that explains, identifies, or renames a noun.PUNCTUATION NOTEIt is enclosed by commas unless it is essential to the meaning of the sentence
10 Now that we have review Phrases . . . We move ontoClauses . . .
11 Clauses An independent clause A dependent clause A group of words containing a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thoughtA dependent clauseA group of words containing a subject and a verb and that do not express a complete thought
12 Independent ClausesIndependent clauses can stand alone, but can be combined in one of the following waysSemi-colonCoordinating conjunctionsConjunctive adverb (or transitional adverb)
14 Semi Colon Combines two independent clauses without a connecting word. ExampleThe day is cold. The wind is howling.The day is cold; the wind is howling.
15 Coordinating Conjunctions And, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet.When joining two independent clauses, you must use a commaExampleMrs. Brown caught the fish, and her husband cooked them.
16 Conjunctive adverb/ transitional adverb However, moreover, nevertheless, therefore, then, accordingly, otherwise, thus, hence, besides, and consequently.A semi colon is before the words beginning the second clause. A comma is generally needed after the conjunctive adverbEx.We drove all day; then at sundown we began to look for a place to camp.It rained during the day; consequently, our trip had to be postponed.
17 Punctuation rulesTwo independent clauses + coordinating conjunction = separated by commasTwo independent clauses connected = separated by a semicolonTwo independent clauses with internal commas + coordinating conjunction = separated by a semicolonSeries of independent clauses + coordinating conjunction = separated by commas
19 Comma SpliceThis is a common mistake that violates Rule #2 (Two independent clauses connected = separated by a semicolon)What is the correct punctuation for this sentenceI enjoyed his company, I did not know that he enjoyed mine.AnwersI enjoyed his company, but I did not know that he enjoyed mine.ORI enjoyed his company; I did not know he enjoyed mine
20 Run-together sentence Also known asa run-onora carry on sentence
21 To Fix a run-together sentence Connect two independent clauses by a comma and a coordinating conjunctionConnect two independent clauses by a semicolonWrite the two independent clauses as separate sentencesSubordinate one of the independent clauses.
22 ExampleTwilight had fallen it was dark under the old oak tree near the house
23 ExampleTwilight had fallen it was dark under the old oak tree near the houseUsing Rule #1Connect two independent clauses by a comma and a coordinating conjunctionTwilight had fallen, and it was dark under the old oak tree near the house.
24 ExampleTwilight had fallen it was dark under the old oak tree near the houseUsing Rule #22. Connect two independent clauses by a semicolonTwilight had fallen; it was dark under the old oak tree near the house.
25 ExampleTwilight had fallen it was dark under the old oak tree near the houseUsing Rule #33. Write the two independent clauses as separate sentencesTwilight had fallen. It was dark under the old oak tree near the house.
26 ExampleTwilight had fallen it was dark under the old oak tree near the houseUsing Rule #44. Subordinate one of the independent clauses.When twilight had fallen, it was dark under the old oak tree near the house.
27 Now on to dependent clauses A group of words containing a subject and a verb and that do not express a complete thoughtThere are three typesNoun ClauseAdjective ClauseAdverbial Clause
28 Dependent Clauses – subordinating words Look for subordinating words that indicate a dependent clause, such as:WhatThatWhoWhichWhenSinceBeforeAfterIf
29 Noun ClausesAccording to Correct Writing, a dependent clause used as a noun, that is, as a subject, complement, object of a preposition, or appositive.ExamplesWhat you intend to do is interestingWhat you intend to doThe fact that he had not told the truth soon became apparentThat he had not told the truth
30 Noun Clauses - Clues 1. key words ThatWhatWhyWhetherWhoWhichHow2. If you remove the clause, what is left is generally not a complete sentence
31 Adjective ClausesAccording to Correct Writing, a dependent clause that modifies a noun or pronounExamplesShe is a woman who is respected by everyoneWho is respected by everyoneI know the reason why I failed the courseWhy I failed the courseMy father, who was a country boy, has lived in the city for years.Who was a country boy
32 Adjective Clauses - Clues 1. key wordsWho (whom, whose)WhichThatWhereWhenWhy2. Nonessential clauses are set off by commas.
33 Adverbial ClausesAccording to Correct Writing, a dependent clause that functions like an adverb, that is it modifies a verb, an adjective, an adverb, or the whole idea expressed in the independent clause.Used to show time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, concession, manner, or comparison.
34 Adverbial Clauses - Time 1. Adverb clauses tell time. Key words to look for areWhenBeforeSinceAsWhileUntilAfterWhenever
35 Adverbial Clauses - Place 2. Adverb clauses tell place or location. Key words to look for areWhereWhereverWhencewhither
36 Adverbial Clauses – Cause & Purpose 3. Adverb clauses tell cause. Key words to look for areBecauseSinceas4. Adverb clauses tell purpose. Key words to look for areIn order thatSo thatthat
37 Adverbial Clauses – Result & Condition 5. Adverb clauses tell result. Key words to look for areSo ThatSuch That6. Adverb clauses tell condition. Key words to look for areIfUnless
38 Adverbial Clauses – Concession & Manner 7. Adverb clauses tell concession. Key words to look for areThoughalthough8. Adverb clauses tell manner. Key words to look for areAsAs ifAs though
39 Adverbial Clauses - Comparison 9. Adverb clauses tell comparison. Key words to look for areAsthan
40 Punctuation NoteIntroductory adverbial clauses are always set off by commasExampleAlthough he had tests to take and a term paper to write, he went home for the weekendWhile I was eating lunch, I had a phone call from my brother.