6 The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or atmosphereTo show a reader a different way of lifeTo make action seem more realTo be the source of conflict or struggleTo symbolize an idea
7 MoodMood is the feeling that the author tries to convey throughout the story. The atmosphere or emotional condition created by the piece, within the setting. Does the author want the reader to be frightened or sad, or does the story make the reader laugh and think happy thoughts?To figure out mood, examine how you feel while reading the story. Often mood is conveyed by the story’s setting.
8 CharactersThe people the story is about; characters are sometimes animals.
9 Characters Protagonist and antagonist are used to describe characters. The protagonist is the main character of the story, the one with whom the reader identifies. This person is not necessary “good”.The antagonist is the force in opposition of the protagonist; this person may not be “bad” or “evil”, but he/she opposes the protagonist in a significant way.
10 CharacterizationA writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.Two primary methods of characterization:Direct- writer tells what the character is likeIndirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
11 Factors in Analyzing Characters Physical appearance of characterPersonalityBackground/personal historyMotivationRelationshipsConflictDoes character change?
12 PlotPlot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. The events that make the action; includes conflict and resolution. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.
13 Parts of a Plot Exposition - introduction Inciting incident – event that gives rise to conflictRising Action- events that occur as result of central conflictClimax- highest point of interest or suspense of storyFalling action – loose ends begin to be tied upResolution- when conflict ends
14 Special Techniques used in a Story Suspense- build-up of excitement, tension, curiosityForeshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in storyFlashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the pastSymbolism – use of specific objects or images to represent ideasPersonification – when you make a thing,idea or animal do something only humans doSurprise Ending - conclusion that readerdoes not expect
15 ConflictConflict is a problem that must be solved; an issue between the protagonist and antagonist forces. It forms the basis of the plot.Conflicts can be external or internalExternal conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacleInternal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
16 Types of conflict Person vs person Person vs society Person vs fate Person vs naturePerson vs self
17 ResolutionHow the character resolves the problem
20 Point of ViewThe storyteller as a participant in the action (first-person point of view); the storyteller outside of the action (third-person point of view)
21 Point of ViewWho is the storyteller? In First-person point of view, the author uses the words I and me, and the story is told as though the author was a participant in the events. In Third-person point of view, the pronouns used are he, she, they, and the author is a storyteller who is outside of the events.
22 Tone Manner of expression or language the speaker/narrator uses to reveal attitudes ( opinions and feelings) about characters, places, or events. Tone only refers to the narrative voice, not to the author or character.
23 ThemeThe theme is the central, general message, the main idea, the controlling topic about life or people the author wants to get across through a literary workTo discover the theme of a story, think big. What big message is the author trying to say about the world in which we live?What is this story telling me about how life works, or how people behave?
24 The Theme is alsothe practical lesson ( moral) that we learn from a story after we read it. The lesson that teaches us what to do or how to behave after you have learned something from a story or something that has happened to you.Example: The lesson or teaching of the story is be careful when you’re offered something for nothing.