Presentation on theme: "SOCIAL /OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY"— Presentation transcript:
1 SOCIAL /OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY MEANINGIDEAS ABOUT LEARNINGPHASES OF LEARNING
2 Social learning theories Social Learning Theory/Social Cognitive Learning which is an outgrowth of behavioral psychology, has been developed by A. Bandura.Learning by which a person learns by observing other people behaving in a particular way.In his critic to radical behaviorist, he argued that people do not rely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do (Bandura, 1977 in Myers1990: 197)It is the observation of other people that modifies one’s behavior.
3 Learning and Environment Other people’s behaviorINTERNAL CHARACTERISTICSInterpretation, value judgment, attitude, choice, beliefsBEHAVIOR
4 Learning procedureLearning takes place through modeling.Modeling: the process of learning behavior by observing and imitating others.A model: person or behavior to be imitated.Bandura’s belief cited in Slavin;1988 is that human being learns directly from a model not so much by its consequences, although reinforcement may be indirectly involved.Children identify themselves with the models they have observed and imitated.
5 Imitation is copying another person’s behavior. Models that normally influence the child’s behavior are people who are:Powerful, caring, rewarded, important, attractive, sociable, talented, artistic, most familiar, have the same motive and interest or intelligent.The choice of a model does not depend on rewards and punishment but the extent to which it (the model) has influenced the person.So, the child’s behavior depends on who modeled it.Parents, teachers, peers, film stars, football players and other people become models for children.
6 The process of modeling: Observe-judge or choose the behavior-imitate- consequence-identification.Identification: the process of acting or behaving in ways that people expect their models to behave and imagine that they are like their models.Although reinforcement and punishment are not directly involved, they influence behavior through vicarious way.Vicarious learning: learning that occurs when an individual changes behavior by witnessing another person either being rewarded or punished.
7 A child who observes his brother praised is likely to copy the behavior than watching the action without praise or reinforcement.Through observational learning, teachers and parents can teach children via two related processes:Rewarding for imitating required behavior, skill or roleActing as models by demonstrating the desired behavior.
8 Four phases of Observational learning Read Slavin R, (1988:135);Arrends, R (1998:259); Elliott et al (2000:221); Malim & Birch(1997:139)The phases are:Attention phaseRetention phaseReproduction phaseMotivational phase
9 Attention phaseThe stage of paying attention to the model based on attractiveness, success, interest and popularity of the model.Paying attention includes watching carefully the demonstration and listening, trying to remember the steps of what is actually done.Retention phaseKeeping in mind what is observed.It requires rehearsal or repetitions of the action.Through repetition the learner will be able to retain the process or the steps of doing things in the mind.
10 The teacher should provide time and opportunities for learners to practice Reproduction phase.The stage of matching behavior or action with the model through imitation.What has been kept in memory is retrieved and used.The learner is expected to follow the same steps or processes demonstrated and observed so that the ultimate behavior will look like the model
11 Motivational phasePersistence of behaving like a model sustained by reinforcement.Initially imitation may due to interest or reinforcement received by the model, but then the person expects reinforcement to himself.One’s approval and judgment is determinant at this stage
12 Important to note on Social learning The learner is mentally active.Learning does not always depend on reinforcement.Learning is influenced by other people, likewise the learner influences others.In class, children learn different behavior, skills and attitudes from peers and from teachers.Teachers must always demonstrate good behavior and peers must be guided to demonstrate good behavior too.Children must know why it is important and good to behave in a particular way.Children must be given opportunity to assess their own behavior.
13 Testing questions Social Learning theory sees learning as involving: Observation and imitation of people’s behaviorSelf-judgment in choosing behaviorInterpretation of the behavior to be imitatedAll the aboveThrough vicarious learning the learner changes behavior by:Being rewardedBeing punishedObserving classmate being rewardedImitating a model