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Social Learning Theory

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1 Social Learning Theory
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

2 Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Context: Behaviorism Declaration of Behaviorism: The goal of psychology should be to predict and control overt behavior (Watson, 1913) Law of effect: Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated while those followed by negative outcomes are not Operant Conditioning: People learn to behave in ways that result in reinforcement

3 Social Learning Theory
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Read biology but took intro to psych to fill his morning hours PhD from the University of Iowa, the home of behaviorism Paid for grad school by doing home repairs for his advisor Neobehaviorist

4 Social Learning Theory
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning Theory Observational Learning: People learn by observing others’ behavior and the outcomes of their behavior Socialization: Process by which society teaches children to behave like the ideal adults of the society One of the most powerful socialization forces is observational learning Children learn to behave like others in their culture because observed behaviors will likely be reinforced

5 Social Learning vs. Behaviorism
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning vs. Behaviorism Behaviorism Learning occurs via reinforcement Learned behaviors must be demonstrated Behaviors must be personally reinforced to be learned Consequences strengthen or weaken behavior Social Learning Learning is affected by social influences Learned behaviors can be acquired knowledge People can learn through the reinforcement of others Consequences provide information about the social acceptability of behavior What would be the behaviorist explanation for learning how to drive a car? Fashion…How to know what to/not to wear? Observing others. What are some other things you can’t learn via reinforcement? Behaviorist: individual in isolation…Nothing affects learning besides rewards/punishments Social learning: ??Who are social influences on children’s learning?? Padres, teachers, friends, media Behaviorism focuses only on observable behavior. Bandura says that we have acquired knowledge that isn’t observable (i.e. Bobo dolls…even children who didn’t exhibit aggressive behavior still had learned the behavior…They could show the behavior when asked, but didn’t exhibit the behavior because of punishment…How many of us would probably know how to hold up a store? Sneakers…We’ve watched over and over on TV, but won’t because of the consequences…social, moral, physical. We’ve acquired the knowledge but won’t do. Driving a zamboni Behaviorism: Enactive learning (actually doing self). Playing basketball… Bandura: Can learn by observing others: driving zamboni, moves in basketball, dance moves. ???Other examples of vicarious learning??? Can also learn by others reinforcements/punishments. Date: Somebody wears certain types of clothes and gets lots of dates… Washer: Punish if person before you gets positive punishment via bleached clothes Consequences are positive/negative reinforcement Consequences inform whether you have met others expectations…Provide information (i.e. math answers in back of book) If you change your hair and still don’t get date…provides info that not hair.

6 Social Learning Types of reinforcement
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning Types of reinforcement Direct: Environment reinforces the child Vicarious: The child observes the environment reinforcing another person Self: The child reinforces themself Direct: You receive the reinforcement from others/environment yourself (i.e. behaviorist reinforcement) If put red shirt in with underwear and turns red, know not to do again. Only type of reinforcement in behaviorism Vicarious: You watch others receive reward/punishment Bobo doll Dating/washer ?When have you been vicariously reinforced? Self: You give yourself the reward/punishment Motivational strategies  I can have a bowl of IC if finish reading the chapter I’ll have a party if I pass my classes. ??How are these types of reinforcements useful in the classroom??

7 Observational Learning
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning Four elements must be met for a child to learn a behavior through observational learning: Pay attention to the model Retain information about the behavior Produce the behavior Be motivated to repeat the behavior Learning by observing others is a critical addition to behaviorism, and is cleverly entitled… First time navigate thru food service…How learn to do? Produce behavior: juggling Focus on people in front of you in line Attention affected by characteristics of the model…gender, race, appeal, perceived competence Emotional/physical state: sleepy, hung over… 2. Retain: code in mind… 3. Produce behavior: juggling… 4. Motivated to repeat  children who didn’t abuse Bobo doll but knew how…just not want to do… Take vitamins…Doing laundry by hand.

8 Observational Learning Process
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning Process Motivation Rewards Rewards preference Internal standards Self-Efficacy Attention Task complexity Model relevance Repetition Attention skills Cognitive skills Interest Retention Reminders Cognitive skills Visual rehearsal Behavioral rehearsal Production Feedback Physical ability Sub-skills T S

9 Observational Learning
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning Observing a model engaging in a behavior can lead to behavior change by: Teaching new behaviors Encouraging previously forbidden behaviors Drawing attention to particular tools Increasing emotional arousal Domains of Research in Observational Learning Aggression Gender development Peer relationships Prosocial behavior Influences of television and other media

10 Observational Learning
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Observational Learning Observational learning is most common among novices Children are most likely to learn from models who are: Strong Nurturing Similar Race Gender Personal characteristics

11 Explaining Development
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Explaining Development Experience with the social world influences development As children interact with others, they learn: New behaviors Appropriate situation for the behavior Motivation to perform the behavior through reinforcement Enculturation largely involves exhibiting desirable social behaviors and strategies of problem solving Similar behaviors within the culture are the result of exposure to similar models

12 Comparing Developmental Theories
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Comparing Developmental Theories Active/Passive Nature/Nurture Stage/Continuous Piaget Active Both Stage Information Processing Sociocultural Continuous Neo-Piagetians Social Learning Nurture Psychosocial Attachment Ecological Systems

13 Critique of Social Learning
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Critique of Social Learning Strengths Integrates social influences to behaviorism Describes a powerful mechanism for social development Weaknesses Does not examine mental processes associated with observational learning Does not explain all types of learning

14 Social Learning in Education
Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Social Learning in Education Students often learn by observing others. Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and avoid modeling inappropriate behaviors. Teachers should expose students to a variety of models. Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones. ? Students have many sources of people to observe. Who are those sources? ?What do they learn from whom? You are model in 2 ways: role model & modeling teaching ?What characteristics of your role model? ?When learning from a model, what characteristics of a model are necessary? ?As a teacher, what characteristics should you model? Issue of race/gender role models…Bring in people from the community to model. ??How to do?? Consequences provide feedback…Describe consequences of not doing homework, of skipping class, Behaviorism: Shape behavior (reinforce behavior as gets closer to final behavior) Social learning: Modeling! Direct reinforcement not needed. Students must pay attention, retain information, produce behavior, and be motivated to repeat.

15 Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Revision Describe the four steps in observational learning and what the teacher can do to support each step. How does observational learning lead to behavior change? According to social learning theory, what are the three types of reinforcement?

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