Presentation on theme: "Social Learning Theory"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Learning Theory Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of Jos
2 Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosContext: BehaviorismDeclaration of Behaviorism: The goal of psychology should be to predict and control overt behavior (Watson, 1913)Law of effect: Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated while those followed by negative outcomes are notOperant Conditioning: People learn to behave in ways that result in reinforcement
3 Social Learning Theory Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosSocial Learning TheoryAlbert BanduraRead biology but took intro to psych to fill his morning hoursPhD from the University of Iowa, the home of behaviorismPaid for grad school by doing home repairs for his advisorNeobehaviorist
4 Social Learning Theory Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosSocial Learning TheoryObservational Learning: People learn by observing others’ behavior and the outcomes of their behaviorSocialization: Process by which society teaches children to behave like the ideal adults of the societyOne of the most powerful socialization forces is observational learningChildren learn to behave like others in their culture because observed behaviors will likely be reinforced
5 Social Learning vs. Behaviorism Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosSocial Learning vs. BehaviorismBehaviorismLearning occurs via reinforcementLearned behaviors must be demonstratedBehaviors must be personally reinforced to be learnedConsequences strengthen or weaken behaviorSocial LearningLearning is affected by social influencesLearned behaviors can be acquired knowledgePeople can learn through the reinforcement of othersConsequences provide information about the social acceptability of behaviorWhat would be the behaviorist explanation for learning how to drive a car? Fashion…How to know what to/not to wear? Observing others.What are some other things you can’t learn via reinforcement?Behaviorist: individual in isolation…Nothing affects learning besides rewards/punishmentsSocial learning: ??Who are social influences on children’s learning?? Padres, teachers, friends, mediaBehaviorism focuses only on observable behavior. Bandura says that we have acquired knowledge that isn’t observable (i.e. Bobo dolls…even children who didn’t exhibit aggressive behavior still had learned the behavior…They could show the behavior when asked, but didn’t exhibit the behavior because of punishment…How many of us would probably know how to hold up a store? Sneakers…We’ve watched over and over on TV, but won’t because of the consequences…social, moral, physical. We’ve acquired the knowledge but won’t do. Driving a zamboniBehaviorism: Enactive learning (actually doing self). Playing basketball…Bandura: Can learn by observing others: driving zamboni, moves in basketball, dance moves.???Other examples of vicarious learning???Can also learn by others reinforcements/punishments.Date: Somebody wears certain types of clothes and gets lots of dates…Washer: Punish if person before you gets positive punishment via bleached clothesConsequences are positive/negative reinforcementConsequences inform whether you have met others expectations…Provide information (i.e. math answers in back of book)If you change your hair and still don’t get date…provides info that not hair.
6 Social Learning Types of reinforcement Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosSocial LearningTypes of reinforcementDirect: Environment reinforces the childVicarious: The child observes the environment reinforcing another personSelf: The child reinforces themselfDirect: You receive the reinforcement from others/environment yourself (i.e. behaviorist reinforcement)If put red shirt in with underwear and turns red, know not to do again.Only type of reinforcement in behaviorismVicarious: You watch others receive reward/punishmentBobo dollDating/washer?When have you been vicariously reinforced?Self: You give yourself the reward/punishmentMotivational strategies I can have a bowl of IC if finish reading the chapterI’ll have a party if I pass my classes.??How are these types of reinforcements useful in the classroom??
7 Observational Learning Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosObservational LearningFour elements must be met for a child to learn a behavior through observational learning:Pay attention to the modelRetain information about the behaviorProduce the behaviorBe motivated to repeat the behaviorLearning by observing others is a critical addition to behaviorism, and is cleverly entitled…First time navigate thru food service…How learn to do?Produce behavior: jugglingFocus on people in front of you in lineAttention affected by characteristics of the model…gender, race, appeal, perceived competenceEmotional/physical state: sleepy, hung over…2. Retain: code in mind…3. Produce behavior: juggling…4. Motivated to repeat children who didn’t abuse Bobo doll but knew how…just not want to do…Take vitamins…Doing laundry by hand.
8 Observational Learning Process Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosObservational Learning ProcessMotivationRewardsRewards preferenceInternal standardsSelf-EfficacyAttentionTask complexityModel relevanceRepetitionAttention skillsCognitive skillsInterestRetentionRemindersCognitive skillsVisual rehearsalBehavioral rehearsalProductionFeedbackPhysical abilitySub-skillsTS
9 Observational Learning Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosObservational LearningObserving a model engaging in a behavior can lead to behavior change by:Teaching new behaviorsEncouraging previously forbidden behaviorsDrawing attention to particular toolsIncreasing emotional arousalDomains of Research in Observational LearningAggressionGender developmentPeer relationshipsProsocial behaviorInfluences of television and other media
10 Observational Learning Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosObservational LearningObservational learning is most common among novicesChildren are most likely to learn from models who are:StrongNurturingSimilarRaceGenderPersonal characteristics
11 Explaining Development Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosExplaining DevelopmentExperience with the social world influences developmentAs children interact with others, they learn:New behaviorsAppropriate situation for the behaviorMotivation to perform the behavior through reinforcementEnculturation largely involves exhibiting desirable social behaviors and strategies of problem solvingSimilar behaviors within the culture are the result of exposure to similar models
12 Comparing Developmental Theories Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosComparing Developmental TheoriesActive/PassiveNature/NurtureStage/ContinuousPiagetActiveBothStageInformation ProcessingSocioculturalContinuousNeo-PiagetiansSocial LearningNurturePsychosocialAttachmentEcological Systems
13 Critique of Social Learning Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosCritique of Social LearningStrengthsIntegrates social influences to behaviorismDescribes a powerful mechanism for social developmentWeaknessesDoes not examine mental processes associated with observational learningDoes not explain all types of learning
14 Social Learning in Education Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosSocial Learning in EducationStudents often learn by observing others.Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and avoid modeling inappropriate behaviors.Teachers should expose students to a variety of models.Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones.? Students have many sources of people to observe. Who are those sources??What do they learn from whom?You are model in 2 ways: role model & modeling teaching?What characteristics of your role model? ?When learning from a model, what characteristics of a model are necessary??As a teacher, what characteristics should you model?Issue of race/gender role models…Bring in people from the community to model.??How to do??Consequences provide feedback…Describe consequences of not doing homework, of skipping class,Behaviorism: Shape behavior (reinforce behavior as gets closer to final behavior)Social learning: Modeling! Direct reinforcement not needed.Students must pay attention, retain information, produce behavior, and be motivated to repeat.
15 Dr. K. A. KorbUniversity of JosRevisionDescribe the four steps in observational learning and what the teacher can do to support each step.How does observational learning lead to behavior change?According to social learning theory, what are the three types of reinforcement?