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Psychology of Music Learning Miksza Cognitivism Part II Vygotsky, Bandura.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Music Learning Miksza Cognitivism Part II Vygotsky, Bandura."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Music Learning Miksza Cognitivism Part II Vygotsky, Bandura

2 Social Constructivist Constructivism - learner constructs knowledge Vygotsky –Russian psychologist - social implications… –Internalization Self-talk, inner speech –Formal and informal settings –Actual vs. potential developmental level –Zone of Proximal Development –Scaffolding

3 Social Cognitive/Learning Theory Major Assumption: “…that environmental and cognitive factors interact to influence human learning and behavior (Ormrod, p.124).” –Modeling –Self-efficacy –Self-regulation Bandura…..also, Shunk, Zimmerman

4 General Principles Euipotentiality less important.. Learn by observing others (models) Don’t necessarily need a change in behavior for learning to have occurred Consequences still important to learning Cognitive elements (e.g., awareness and expectation) are important

5 Environment, Consequences, and Models Model reinforces behavior when learner imitates Learner is reinforced when imitating a model by someone other than the model The imitated behavior is in itself reinforcing Vicarious reinforcement: Reinforcement the model receives affects the behavior of the learner Delayed imitation: The learner does not exhibit a behavior immediately after seeing a model, but does so later

6 More recent takes on reinforcement and punishment… Reinforcement and punishment influence ‘extent’ behaviors are likely to occur –But need a reason for behavior to occur The expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes such as attention and therefore affects learning

7 Cognitive Factors A distinction is drawn between learning through observation (i.e., vicarious acquisition) and imitation Attention, mental rehearsal, memory encoding –Visual, verbal, aural, others? Expectations - incentive, reinforcement, non- occurrence of expected punishment Learners need to be aware of how consequences are contingent on certain behaviors

8 Reciprocal Causation/Determinism The environment, individual, and behavior are constantly interacting and influencing each other Modeling - an example of this interaction –Begins as early as birth –There are multiple types of models –There are model characteristics that are related to effectiveness

9 Modeling Types of models… –Live, symbolic, verbal –Cognitive modeling - explaining how they think about something - ‘cognitive apprenticeship’ –Much research linking modeling to behaviors, academic skills, aggression, morality, etc.

10 Conditions for Learning Through Modeling Four processes before an individual can successfully model behavior of someone else… –Attention - to the model and salient elements –Retention - remember it, through rehearsal and encoding –Motor reproduction - replicating the behavior –Motivation - want to demonstrate what the model did

11 Characteristics of Effective Models The model is competent The model has prestige and power The model behaves in ‘gender- appropriate’ ways The model’s behavior is relevant to the observer’s situation Ormrod’s list…

12 Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy vs. self-concept –Perceived competence on a task vs. General ability in a domain or variety of domains… Self-efficacy affects: –Choices of activities –Goals –Effort and persistence –Learning and achievement Self-efficacy develops from: –Previous success and failures –Messages from others –Successes and failures of others –Successes and failures of groups

13 Self-Regulation Elements –Setting standards and goals –Self-observation/metacognition/monitoring –Self-judgment/self-evaluation –Self-reaction/reinforcing/punishing

14 Educational Implications Learning by simply watching others Clear descriptions of consequences can affect learning Modeling can be used to teach new behaviors Both intentional and unintentional role models are important Students should see a variety of models Self-efficacy is important to learning Realistic goals and expectations are important Self-regulation techniques can improve student behavior

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