Presentation on theme: "The Forum: Aristotle’s Model of Communication. Who is Aristotle? A philosopher who lived in ancient Greece about 2300 years ago. He thought and wrote."— Presentation transcript:
Who is Aristotle? A philosopher who lived in ancient Greece about 2300 years ago. He thought and wrote about many subjects: science, politics, human nature, theater, music and rhetoric. He was hired to be the personal teacher to Alexander the Great to help him prepare for a career as a political leader. He would have called communication “rhetoric.”
Aristotle’s Definition of Rhetoric “Rhetoric” is “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” (Rhetoric 1335bc). Aristotle’s view of communication emphasized the kind of communication that a leader would need to persuade people in the political forum.
Ethos, Logos, Pathos Aristotle states that effective persuasion always contains these three elements. For Aristotle these are the building blocks of good communication in the public forum.
Ethos = Credibility Language appropriate to audience and subject Clothing is appropriate for the occasion. Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Appropriate level of vocabulary Correct grammar Image that matches audience expectations Be truthful and honest
...character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion... Aristotle says:
What Ethos means for speakers: Know what your audience believes and wants. If your audience has a good opinion of you they are more likely to believe what you have to say. If you are speaking to persuade a teacher to give you an “A” then good grammar is very important. If you are speaking to a football team to persuade them to play their best, being able to use the vocabulary of the game is key.
What Ethos means for speakers: This also means to dress appropriately for the occasion. If you are a minister speaking in church the kind of dress you will need to have “ethos” is different from the kind of clothing you would need to have credibility persuading a motorcycle club to buy a Harley from you.
Pathos = Passion Vivid / Emotionally loaded language Physical expression, face/gestures Emotional examples Vivid descriptions Narratives of emotional events Emotional tone, good energy level Humor Symbolic language
The arousing of prejudice, pity, anger, and similar emotions has nothing to do with the essential facts, but is merely a personal appeal to the man who is judging the case. Aristotle says:
What Pathos means for speakers: Speak with energy and enthusiasm. Include content in your speech that will make your audience laugh or cry. Catch their attention at the beginning. Use vivid and descriptive language in your speech. Tell an interesting story to illustrate your point. Connect with your audience on an emotional level.
Logos = Logic Definitions Factual data and statistics Quotations from experts and authorities Theoretical, abstract language, Denotative meanings/reasons Historical comparisons Informed opinions
“The whole is more than the sum of its parts.” & “First, have a definite, clear practical ideal; a goal, an objective.”
"I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is the victory over self."
Excellence is an art won by training and habituation. We do not act rightly because we have virtue or excellence, but we rather have those because we have acted rightly. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.