Presentation on theme: "English 11AP Mrs. Guthrie Intro to Rhetoric. What is rhetoric? Although often associated with negative connotations, it is not synonymous with deception."— Presentation transcript:
What is rhetoric? Although often associated with negative connotations, it is not synonymous with deception. Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” Key word: persuasion Modern Dictionary Definition of Rhetoric: the study of the effective use of language or the ability to use language effectively. Keyword: effective
Rhetoric takes many forms We are going to use the blanket term text to refer to: Essays Speeches Advertisements Political Cartoons Photographs Blogs And other cultural products that put forth a message. The responsibility of informed citizens is to understand how rhetoric works in both deception and civil communication.
What articles, speeches, advertisements, or other texts have you seen that are: Manipulative/Deceptive? Civil/Effective?
The Rhetorical Situation SOAPSTone: Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject/Situation Tone
Determine the SOAPSTone: George W. Bush’s 9/11 Speech George W. Bush’s 9/11 Speech Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject/Situation Tone
Appeals to Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Ethos: Greek for character Establishes credibility of the rhetor Can be automatic with degrees, credentials, titles Can be built by explaining background, expertise, or emphasizing shared values
Logos: Greek for “embodied thought” Think- logic, reason, and clear, rational thoughts Often involves defining the terms of the argument and establishing correlation/causation. May refer to statistics, authorities, facts, or quantitative data. Be careful to assess accuracy, bias, and presentation!
Logos: Conceding and Refuting Part of a logical appeal may be to acknowledge the counterargument. Concede: Agree that part of the argument may be true or reasonable. Refute: Deny that the arguments or conclusions are valid as a whole.
Pathos Appeal to emotions, values, desires, hopes, fears, prejudices Arguments that appeal only to pathos are weak Propagandistic Polemical Arguments that include pathos can be very strong. Connotation vs Denotation Humor is another way to appeal to pathos by lightening the mood before challenging our beliefs.
How does this appeal to pathos? Richard Nixon’s “Checkers” Speech Richard Nixon’s “Checkers” Speech Background: Nixon had been accused of improprieties relating to a fund established by his backers to reimburse him for his political expenses.
Think about this in your critical reading AND writing. Remember, the most effective arguments appeal to the audience in multiple ways.
Images appealing to pathos: Interaction of words and images Juxtaposition
Images can also be *read* rhetorically What rhetorical strategies does WWF use to achieve its purpose in this ad?
Watch out for ineffective rhetoric produced by: A rhetor not understanding the audience. A rhetor approaching the subject hyperbolically. A rhetor appealing to only one part of the audience. A rhetor completely ignoring the obvious counterargument.
Let’s look at 2 examples: P. 28 Student Sample Essay P. 29 Image In what ways are these arguments effective or ineffective?