2 RhetoricDefinition from the OED: “The art of using language so as to persuade or influence others; the body of rules to be observed by a speaker or writer in order that he may express himself with eloquence.”Simply, rhetoric is the art of persuasion or argument.Rhetorically speaking, “argument,” in the rhetorical sense does not refer to disagreement or fighting. Instead, the rhetorical argument has to do with the goals for the rhetorical work and how you go about achieving these goals.
3 Aristotle and Rhetoric Also known as “Aristotelian Rhetoric” after Aristotle, the 4th century Greek philosopher.Aristotle believed that a speaker could only be persuasive if he/she could strike a balance between the text, the writer, and the reader.Aristotle’s Equation.Audience + Purpose = Style/Delivery
4 The Three Key Elements of Rhetoric! The three key elements of any rhetorical work have to be balanced in order for the message to be successful.The author has to be aware of the audience and make sure that the text communicates well.The text has to reflect the ideas of the author and connect to it’s audience.The audience has to connect to the text and the author’s message.AuthorThe Three Key Elements of Rhetoric!AudienceText
6 Pathos Makes up the root of our modern word “pathetic.” Being rhetorically “pathetic” doesn’t refer to being pitiful or uninspiring. Instead, “pathetic,” in a rhetorical sense, refers to a pathos-driven argument.An appeal to emotions.Makes an emotional argument without requiring critical thinking, without asking WHY the argument is valid.
7 Examples of Pathos What kinds of examples of pathos can you think of? Country SongsReligious TractsPropagandaAdvertisements
8 Logos Makes up the root of our modern word “logic.” Simply, logos is employing logic and appealing to your audience’s logical side.Convincing through evidence alone.Not very common in everyday speech, but used almost exclusively in academic writing.
9 Examples of Logos What kinds of examples of logos can you think of? StatisticsNumbersDefinitionsQuotations“Expert” Opinions
10 Ethos Comprises the root of our modern word “ethics.” Refers to the author’s credibility.Employing ethos requires that an author demonstrate that they are reliable, trustworthy, credible, and that she or he respects the intelligence of the audience!
11 Examples of EthosThere are certain types of writing that rely heavily on ethos in particular:MemoirAutobiographyBiographyFirst-person accountsThere are also certain things that you can employ in your writing which demonstrate good ethos:Proper use of vocabularyCorrect grammarAppropriate languageUse of tone
12 Finding Balance! Author Ethos The Three Key Elements of Rhetoric The Three Basic Components of RhetoricAudienceTextPathosLogos
13 Finding Balance!Author/EthosThe secret to effective writing and communication is combining the components and being aware of them.But this illustration makes it appear as though the relationship between these elements is stagnant. A better visual would be . . .Audience/PathosText/Logos
14 All of the Elements of Rhetoric are Constantly Interacting Text/LogosAuthor/EthosAudience/PathosImagine that the circles are spinning to show interaction…
15 Kairos One of the two Greek words for “time.” The other is chronos. Chronos is quantitative time (that is, time that can be measured—sunrise, sunset, 4:35pm, April 14th 2008—calendar time)Kairos is qualitative time (it has to do more with timing than time. Kairos is about appropriateness based on the specific cultural/historical moment in which the text appears)The context of the text, the where and when of the text you are analyzing.All texts were created during a specific, particular time and place, and every text reflects that time and place.
16 Examples of Kairos2006—In this ad, Coke is also a social lubricant, but it is specifically suited to simpler, cheaper activities (such as singing, barbequeing, and playing lawn tennis). All of these activities are specifically designed to make the audience feel as though good times are still possible (with the help of a Coke) in spite of the hard economy.1930s—In this advertisement, the value of the Coke is found in both it’s refreshing nature and it’s usefulness as a social lubricant. Drinking a Coke together was an excuse for a man and a woman to connect, flirt, and mingle in a socially acceptable way.
17 All of the Elements of Rhetoric are Constantly Interacting – Including Kairos Text/LogosKairosAuthor/EthosAudience/PathosKairos is really at the center of all of the elements and components of rhetoric.