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Published byMerryl Cross Modified over 7 years ago
Rhetoric and Aristotelian Persuasion
ARISTOTLE ( 384-322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher who studied under Plato. Aristotle studied and wrote prolifically on subjects from politics to metaphysics. Aristotle's discussion of rhetoric contributed lasting ideas about the methods of persuasion.
Rhetoric is the art of using language effectively and persuasively.
Persuasion is an appeal to an audience. ethos logos pathos were identified by Aristotle as appeals necessary to effectively persuade an audience.
Ethos is the establishment of the credibility of the author or speaker. An author develops ethos by using objective and fair language, by considering counterarguments, and by presenting appropriate and credible sources.
Are we not disposed to be the number of those who having eyes see not, and having ears hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? Here Henry uses ethos by using the Biblical allusion “having eyes... hear not
Logos is an appeal to logic. An author develops logos by offering credible facts and statistics related to the topic at hand, by using allusion, by using deductive and inductive reasoning, and by citing credible sources outside the work itself.
Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific.
Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories.
We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. Man! Look at Henry go. His appeal to logos uses inductive reasoning and then he pulls it around with an appeal to pathos
Pathos is an appeal to the emotion of the audience. An author develops pathos by including figurative language such as metaphor, simile, and vivid imagery, by including emotional anecdotes, and by offering vivid, connotative language employed to evoke sympathy and emotional interest in the topic.
We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Man, those Limeys are going to turn us into swine, just like Circe did. I’m gettin’ mad now!
For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery ;
They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging
until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot?
There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged ! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston !
Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?
HENRY? Isn’t there a name for that literary technique you’re using??
Why Yes… It’s called MOTIF
A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work. A dominant theme or central idea. Music A short rhythmic or melodic passage that is repeated or evoked in various parts of a composition. A repeated figure or design in architecture or decoration.
Theoretical, abstract language Denotative meanings/reasons Literal and historical analogies Definitions Factual data and statistics Quotations Citations from experts and authorities Informed opinions Language appropriate to audience and subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Appropriate level of vocabulary Correct grammar Vivid, concrete language Emotionally loaded language Connotative meanings Emotional examples Vivid descriptions Narratives of emotional events Emotional tone Figurative language To Appeal to Logic (logos) To Develop Ethos To Appeal to Emotion (pathos)
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