Why Speech Organization is Important It allows you and the listeners to see what ideas you have and to put mental “hands” on the most important ones. Listeners who hear a well-organized speech believe a speaker to be much more competent and trustworthy. Listeners demand coherence. A speaker must make sure listeners can follow the progression of ideas in a speech from beginning to end. Using a clear and specific method of speech organization can boost your confidence as a speaker and improve your ability to deliver a message fluently.
3 Elements in the Body of the Presentation 1. Main points 2. Supporting points 3. Connectives
Main Points and Organizational Patterns Select them carefully Phrase them precisely Organize them strategically, in any of the following patterns : 1. Chronological order 2. Spatial order 3. Causal order 4. Topical order 5. Problem solving order
Supporting Points Supporting materials are backup ideas for the main points. Directly support and are relevant to the main points.
Connectives Transitions Eg: We have spent a lot of time talking the problem. It’s time now to discuss the solution. Internal previews Eg: (Transition) Now that we have seen serious the problem of missing children is, let’s take a look at some solutions. (Internal preview) I will focus on three in particular – stronger legal custody laws to …and…Let’s consider them in turn. Internal summaries Eg: In going back over the effects of … Signposts Eg: The first cause… the final contributing cause is…
The Introduction of Your Speech 1. Get the attention and interest of your audience – “attention-grabber” 2. Reveal the topic of your speech 3. Establish your credibility 4. Preview the body of the speech
How to Get the Attention of Your Audience Relate the topic to your audience. State the importance of your topic. Startle the audience with an arresting or intriguing statement. Arouse the curiosity of the audience. Question the audience. Begin with a quotation. Tell a story.
The Conclusion of Your Speech 1. Signal the end of the speech by using cues like: Ending words Voice characteristics – tone, pace, rhythm 2. Reinforce the central idea by: Restating the main points. Emphasize what you want your audience to do or think. Use a quotation or dramatic statement, if appropriate. Refer to the introduction.
Language Issues Sentence structure – spoken vs written Appropriate vocabulary Clear pronunciation
Delivery Style ~Extemporaneous~ The extemporaneous method requires that the presentation be carefully researched and planned. Delivery is aided by a presentation outline, rather than a complete script The main advantage of this method is a presenter could sound spontaneous and conversational, yet organized and coherent
Tips on Delivery Maintain eye contact – gently (caution : do not stare!) Use voice control – pause; vary the volume, pitch and rate of voice to sustain interest Use body language – carefully (gestures, posture and facial expressions should consistently support the verbal message) Establish a confident posture and stance Avoid distracting mannerisms
Appearance ~ What you are speaks louder than what you say ~ Match appearance to audience expectations Keep the pattern and style of attire simple – DO NOT hang ornaments or badges on the attire, or over-accesorise Ensure attire is comfortable, i.e. in the appropriate size, made of suitable materials Wear suitable and comfortable shoes
Anxiety a major challenge to effective presentation Fear or anxiety over the prospect of giving a presentation in front of an audience is normal Causes have been attributed to perceived lack of skills, emotional predispositions towards speaking, and characteristics of the speaking situation The best strategy to overcome speech anxiety : PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE ( based on the principle that the better one knows how to do something, the less anxious one will feel about doing it )