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Psychological Disorders: An Introduction. Defining Disorder.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders: An Introduction. Defining Disorder."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Disorders: An Introduction

2 Defining Disorder

3 Psychological Disorders Psychopathology—scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders Psychological disorder - a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both

4 Psychological Disorder A “harmful dysfunction” in which behaviors are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical

5 MUDA A mnemonic device used to remember the four attributes of a psychological disorder –Maladaptive –Unjustifiable –Disturbing –Atypical

6 Maladaptive An exaggeration of normal, acceptable behaviors Destructive to oneself or others

7 Unjustifiable A behavior which does not have a rational basis

8 Disturbing A behavior which is troublesome to other people

9 Atypical A behavior so different from other people’s behavior that it violates a norm Norms vary from culture to culture

10 Understanding Disorders

11 Early Views of Mental Illness In ancient times, mental illness was usually explained through a supernatural model; the person was possessed or a sinner During the Middle Ages treatment methods were inhumane and cruel

12 Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) French physician who worked to reform the treatment of people with mental disorders Encouraged more humane treatment

13 Understanding Disorders: The Medical Model

14 The Medical Model Diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. Psychological disorders can be diagnosed based on their symptoms and treated or cured through therapy. Psychological disorders are similar to a physical illness.

15 Understanding Disorders: The Bio-Psycho-Social Model

16 Bio-Psycho-Social Model Perspective of mental illness which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

17 Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective

18 Classifying Disorders

19 DSM-V Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition A guidebook for clinicians for diagnosis Provides a common language to label mental disorders Recently revised by the American Psychiatric Association – See the Changes made in this new additionChanges made in this new addition Lists and describes symptoms for 250 specific psychological disorders Has changed significantly since the first edition

20 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) Describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders –Clinical Presentation (What are the symptoms?) –Etiology (What causes the disorder?) –Developmental Stage (How does this look in kids? Adults?) –Functional Impairment (What will happen short-term & long-term?)




24 Labeling Stigmas Studies show a clear bias against people diagnosed with mental disorders. Rosenhan Study – “normal” people pretended to hear voices and checked into a mental health facility then acted normally. Their normal actions taken to be abnormal once they were labeled schizophrenic.


26 Gender Differences for Disorders

27 Prevalence of Mental Disorders Worldwide

28 Americans with disorders



31 Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portrays Them? People with mental disorders are often depicted on TV as helpless victims or evil villains who are unpredictable, dangerous, and violent. One study indicated that, overall, former mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than a matched comparison group. People with severe mental disorders who are experiencing bizarre delusional ideas and hallucinated voices do have a slightly higher level of violent and illegal behavior than do “normal” people.

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