Psychological Disorders Psychopathology—scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders Psychological disorder - a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both
Psychological Disorder A “harmful dysfunction” in which behaviors are maladaptive, unjustifiable, disturbing, and atypical
MUDA A mnemonic device used to remember the four attributes of a psychological disorder –Maladaptive –Unjustifiable –Disturbing –Atypical
Maladaptive An exaggeration of normal, acceptable behaviors Destructive to oneself or others
Unjustifiable A behavior which does not have a rational basis
Disturbing A behavior which is troublesome to other people
Atypical A behavior so different from other people’s behavior that it violates a norm Norms vary from culture to culture
Early Views of Mental Illness In ancient times, mental illness was usually explained through a supernatural model; the person was possessed or a sinner During the Middle Ages treatment methods were inhumane and cruel
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) French physician who worked to reform the treatment of people with mental disorders Encouraged more humane treatment
The Medical Model Diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. Psychological disorders can be diagnosed based on their symptoms and treated or cured through therapy. Psychological disorders are similar to a physical illness.
Understanding Disorders: The Bio-Psycho-Social Model
Bio-Psycho-Social Model Perspective of mental illness which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
DSM-V Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition A guidebook for clinicians for diagnosis Provides a common language to label mental disorders Recently revised by the American Psychiatric Association – See the Changes made in this new additionChanges made in this new addition Lists and describes symptoms for 250 specific psychological disorders Has changed significantly since the first edition
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) Describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders –Clinical Presentation (What are the symptoms?) –Etiology (What causes the disorder?) –Developmental Stage (How does this look in kids? Adults?) –Functional Impairment (What will happen short-term & long-term?)
Labeling Stigmas Studies show a clear bias against people diagnosed with mental disorders. Rosenhan Study – “normal” people pretended to hear voices and checked into a mental health facility then acted normally. Their normal actions taken to be abnormal once they were labeled schizophrenic.
Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portrays Them? People with mental disorders are often depicted on TV as helpless victims or evil villains who are unpredictable, dangerous, and violent. One study indicated that, overall, former mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than a matched comparison group. People with severe mental disorders who are experiencing bizarre delusional ideas and hallucinated voices do have a slightly higher level of violent and illegal behavior than do “normal” people.