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Bellwork In your IAN, at the top of what will be today’s notes, define normal In your own words When you are done to your partner and share with each other.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork In your IAN, at the top of what will be today’s notes, define normal In your own words When you are done to your partner and share with each other."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork In your IAN, at the top of what will be today’s notes, define normal In your own words When you are done to your partner and share with each other what you came up with Class share So…what did we determine?

2 Abnormal Psychology

3 Emerson said… “The sun shines and warms and lights us and we have no curiosity to know why this is so, but we ask the reason for all evil, of pain, and hunger and unusual people.”

4 Abnormal psychology the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning

5 Mental Disorders "a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom."--Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Ed.

6 National Institute of Mental Health Statistics
According to the world health organization (WHO), 450 million people worldwide suffer from psychological disorders (2004) An estimated 32% of Americans suffer from a mental illness. 75 million About 6 percent, or 1 in 17 —suffer from a serious mental illness. In addition, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and Canada for ages Nearly half (45 percent) of those with any mental disorder meet criteria for 2 or more disorders, with severity strongly related to comorbidity. Most common disorders were anxiety, phobias, and mood disorders

7 Think About… What is normal?

8 What makes a Behavior a Psychological Disorder?
Many definitions have been proposed, yet none are universally accepted Most definitions, however, share some common features… “The Four Ds” Deviance – Different, extreme, unusual Distress – Unpleasant & upsetting Dysfunction – Causes interference with life Danger – Poses risk of harm OBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.

9 Understanding Psychological Disorders
Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior. John W. Verano Trephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)

10 Models of the Causes of Psychological Disorders
Biological model Physiological or biochemical basis Psychoanalytic model Disorders are the result of unconscious conflicts Cognitive-Behavioral model Disorders are the result of learning maladaptive ways of behaving and thinking Diathesis-Stress model Biological predisposition to disorder which is triggered by stress

11 Systems theory Biopsychosocial Model
Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.

12 Medical Approach When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder. Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another. Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.

13 Classifying Psychological Disorders
The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s. Will be revised in Working on revisions now and they are available for review online. OBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.

14 The DSM spells out the specific diagnostic criteria
An example of this can be seen in the diagnosis of a major depressive episode. When diagnosing a client the American Psychological Association recommends that the clinician use a multiaxial Assessment System.

15 Multiaxial Classification
Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present? Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis III Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present? Axis IV Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present? Axis V What is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning? (GAF Scale is out of 100 with the lower the school the more limited their functionioning.

16 Multiaxial Classification
Note 16 syndromes in Axis I

17 Multiaxial Classification
Note Global Assessment for Axis V

18 Sample Axis I 296.21 Major Depressive Disorder
Alcohol Dependence Axis II Dependent Personality Disorder Axis III None Axis IV Recent Divorce, unemployment Axis V 58

19 Goals of DSM Describe (400) disorders. Determine how prevalent the disorder is. Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”

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