Presentation on theme: "Bellwork In your IAN, at the top of what will be today’s notes, define normal In your own words When you are done to your partner and share with each other."— Presentation transcript:
1 BellworkIn your IAN, at the top of what will be today’s notes, define normalIn your own wordsWhen you are done to your partner and share with each other what you came up withClass shareSo…what did we determine?
3 Emerson said…“The sun shines and warms and lights us and we have no curiosity to know why this is so, but we ask the reason for all evil, of pain, and hunger and unusual people.”
4 Abnormal psychologythe scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
5 Mental Disorders"a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom."--Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Ed.
6 National Institute of Mental Health Statistics According to the world health organization (WHO), 450 million people worldwide suffer from psychological disorders (2004)An estimated 32% of Americans suffer from a mental illness.75 millionAbout 6 percent, or 1 in 17 —suffer from a serious mental illness.In addition, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and Canada for agesNearly half (45 percent) of those with any mental disorder meet criteria for 2 or more disorders, with severity strongly related to comorbidity.Most common disorders were anxiety, phobias, and mood disorders
8 What makes a Behavior a Psychological Disorder? Many definitions have been proposed, yet none are universally acceptedMost definitions, however, share some common features…“The Four Ds”Deviance – Different, extreme, unusualDistress – Unpleasant & upsettingDysfunction – Causes interference with lifeDanger – Poses risk of harmOBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
9 Understanding Psychological Disorders Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood.OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior.John W. VeranoTrephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)
10 Models of the Causes of Psychological Disorders Biological modelPhysiological or biochemical basisPsychoanalytic modelDisorders are the result of unconscious conflictsCognitive-Behavioral modelDisorders are the result of learning maladaptive ways of behaving and thinkingDiathesis-Stress modelBiological predisposition to disorder which is triggered by stress
11 Systems theory Biopsychosocial Model Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
12 Medical ApproachWhen physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders.Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder.Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another.Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital.Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.
13 Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders.The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s.Will be revised in Working on revisions now and they are available for review online.OBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.
14 The DSM spells out the specific diagnostic criteria An example of this can be seen in the diagnosis of a major depressive episode.When diagnosing a client the American Psychological Association recommends that the clinician use a multiaxial Assessment System.
15 Multiaxial Classification Axis IIs a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present?Axis IIIs a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present?Axis IIIIs a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present?Axis IVAre Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present?Axis VWhat is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning? (GAF Scale is out of 100 with the lower the school the more limited their functionioning.
16 Multiaxial Classification Note 16 syndromes in Axis I
17 Multiaxial Classification Note Global Assessment for Axis V
18 Sample Axis I 296.21 Major Depressive Disorder Alcohol DependenceAxis II Dependent Personality DisorderAxis III NoneAxis IV Recent Divorce, unemploymentAxis V 58
19 Goals of DSMDescribe (400) disorders.Determine how prevalent the disorder is.Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar.Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”