Early Views of Mental Illness In ancient times, mental illness was usually explained through a supernatural model; the person was possessed or a sinner During the Middle Ages treatment methods were inhumane and cruel
The Medical Model Diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. Psychological disorders can be diagnosed based on their symptoms and treated or cured through therapy. Psychological disorders are similar to a physical illness.
Bio-Psycho-Social Model Perspective of mental illness which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders
Diagnosis Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)—describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders –Provides a common language to label mental disorders –Comprehensive guidelines to help diagnose mental disorders
DSM-IV-TR Divides mental disorders into 17 major categories Includes the symptoms but not the causes or treatment of each disease Lists and describes 250 specific psychological disorders
Labeling Stigmas Studies show a clear bias against people diagnosed with mental disorders. Rosenhan Study – “normal” people pretended to hear voices and checked into a mental health facility then acted normally. Their normal actions taken to be abnormal once they were labeled schizophrenic.
Prevalence Approximately 48% of adults experienced symptoms at least once in their lives Approximately 80% who experienced symptoms in the last year did NOT seek treatment – Many people who could benefit from mental health treatment do not seek it. –Most people seem to deal with symptoms without complete debilitation Women have higher prevalence of depression and anxiety Men have higher prevalence of substance abuse and antisocial personality disorder
Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portrays Them? People with mental disorders are often depicted on TV as helpless victims or evil villains who are unpredictable, dangerous, and violent. One study indicated that, overall, former mental patients did not have a higher rate of violence than a matched comparison group. People with severe mental disorders who are experiencing bizarre delusional ideas and hallucinated voices do have a slightly higher level of violent and illegal behavior than do “normal” people.