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Who Rules???? Government Notes

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1 Who Rules???? Government Notes

2 What is government??? When people decide to form the social contracts we call government they make many different decisions about what their government will look and be like.

3 Who has the power and who gets to participate?
How is power distributed within a: Unitary Confederation Federal Who gets to participate? What is the role of a citizen in the various types of government? Autocratic Oligarchic Democratic

4 Major types of governments
Anarchy Communist Republic Democracy Dictatorship Monarchy

5 What does it mean… Part of Word Meaning Arch Root
Chief, most important Mon-(mono) Prefix One, single -cracy Suffix Rule or government by Theo- God Demo- People -cratic A person who takes part in government Auto- Self Olig- from the Greek Oligos A few or a little

6 This + That = Put it all together meaning Monarchy Mon + arch
Single + chief/ruler Democracy Demo + cracy Government by the people Theocracy Theo + cracy Rule by god Oligarchy Olig + arch Government by a few

7 Anarchy There is NO government
This can happen after a civil war in a country, when a government has been destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take its place. Anarchists are people who believe that government is a bad thing in that it stops people organizing their own lives. Example: Rwanda during the 1994 genocide.

8 Communist A system of government in which the state controls the economy. A single party holds all the power Head is usually a dictator. Citizens have no rights or voice in government. They are often even told where to work and how much to get paid. Examples: Russia prior to 1990, China today

9 Republic A form of government in which people rule through elected representatives. Citizens have a very active role in government through elections and help to make governmental decisions. Examples: USA

10 Democracy Any form of government in which political power is exercised by all citizens either directly or through their elected representatives. There are two types of democracy: Parliamentary and Presidential The main difference between the two is the relationship between the legislative and executive branches.

11 Parliamentary Democracy
The legislature, parliament, controls the power. Parliament is made up of representatives (elected by the people). Prime Minister (head of government) is chosen by the majority party within the legislature and answers to the legislature (fusion of power). Israel is an example of a Parliamentary Democracy.

12 Presidential Democracy
Executive and legislative branches are separate bodies elected by citizens(separation of powers). There are checks and balances where each can overrule the other. The president is elected by and answers to the voter not the legislature.

13 Difference between Democracy and a Republic…
A republic is a representative form of government that is ruled according to a charter, or constitution. Democracy is a government that is ruled according to the will of the majority (more than 50 percent). The main difference between a republic and a democracy is the charter or constitution that limits the power of the republic, often to protect the individual’s rights against the desires of the majority. In a true democracy, the majority rules in all cases, regardless of any consequences for individuals or for those who are not the majority on an issue.

14 Autocracy A form of government in which political power is controlled by one individual such as a monarch, dictator, or emperor, etc.

15 Monarchy Ruled by kings, queens, princes, princesses…sometimes by other names but always MONARCHS!!! Two types Absolute: example – Saudi Arabia (very rare to have an absolute monarchy today). Constitutional: example – Bahrain. A system of government in which the power is shared between the monarchy and an elected branch of government. Head of the government is usually the head of the elected branch…usually the monarch serves a more symbolic role.

16 Dictatorship In a dictatorship, power is not inherited, but is acquired by force (military or political). Dictators have absolute control over the lives of their citizens and usually people are not allowed to voice their negative opinions. North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, is considered a dictator.

17 Oligarchy “Rule by a few” Power can be based on several things:
Military strength = military junta Family power = Aristocracy Religious control = Theocratic Oligarchy Oligarchies can often come from or lead to other forms of government (like autocracies).

18 Theocracy “Theo” means “god” in Greek… so if a government is THEO-cratic that means it is rule by… A god or higher power. Leaders (autocratic or oligarchic) are usually religious leaders and society uses religious law to settle its disputes. Example: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses the holy Islamic book, the Qur’an, as its guide.

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