2 What is government???When people decide to form the social contracts we call government they make many different decisions about what their government will look and be like.
3 Who has the power and who gets to participate? How is power distributed within a:UnitaryConfederationFederalWho gets to participate?What is the role of a citizen in the various types of government?AutocraticOligarchicDemocratic
4 Major types of governments AnarchyCommunistRepublicDemocracyDictatorshipMonarchy
5 What does it mean… Part of Word Meaning Arch Root Chief, most importantMon-(mono)PrefixOne, single-cracySuffixRule or government byTheo-GodDemo-People-craticA person who takes part in governmentAuto-SelfOlig- from the Greek OligosA few or a little
6 This + That = Put it all together meaning Monarchy Mon + arch Single + chief/rulerDemocracyDemo + cracyGovernment by the peopleTheocracyTheo + cracyRule by godOligarchyOlig + archGovernment by a few
7 Anarchy There is NO government This can happen after a civil war in a country, when a government has been destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take its place.Anarchists are people who believe that government is a bad thing in that it stops people organizing their own lives.Example: Rwanda during the 1994 genocide.
8 CommunistA system of government in which the state controls the economy.A single party holds all the powerHead is usually a dictator.Citizens have no rights or voice in government. They are often even told where to work and how much to get paid.Examples: Russia prior to 1990, China today
9 RepublicA form of government in which people rule through elected representatives.Citizens have a very active role in government through elections and help to make governmental decisions.Examples: USA
10 DemocracyAny form of government in which political power is exercised by all citizens either directly or through their elected representatives.There are two types of democracy:Parliamentary and PresidentialThe main difference between the two is the relationship between the legislative and executive branches.
11 Parliamentary Democracy The legislature, parliament, controls the power.Parliament is made up of representatives (elected by the people).Prime Minister (head of government) is chosen by the majority party within the legislature and answers to the legislature (fusion of power).Israel is an example of a Parliamentary Democracy.
12 Presidential Democracy Executive and legislative branches are separate bodies elected by citizens(separation of powers).There are checks and balances where each can overrule the other.The president is elected by and answers to the voter not the legislature.
13 Difference between Democracy and a Republic… A republic is a representative form of government that is ruled according to a charter, or constitution.Democracy is a government that is ruled according to the will of the majority (more than 50 percent).The main difference between a republic and a democracy is the charter or constitution that limits the power of the republic, often to protect the individual’s rights against the desires of the majority. In a true democracy, the majority rules in all cases, regardless of any consequences for individuals or for those who are not the majority on an issue.
14 AutocracyA form of government in which political power is controlled by one individual such as a monarch, dictator, or emperor, etc.
15 MonarchyRuled by kings, queens, princes, princesses…sometimes by other names but always MONARCHS!!!Two typesAbsolute: example – Saudi Arabia (very rare to have an absolute monarchy today).Constitutional: example – Bahrain. A system of government in which the power is shared between the monarchy and an elected branch of government.Head of the government is usually the head of the elected branch…usually the monarch serves a more symbolic role.
16 DictatorshipIn a dictatorship, power is not inherited, but is acquired by force (military or political).Dictators have absolute control over the lives of their citizens and usually people are not allowed to voice their negative opinions.North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-un, is considered a dictator.
17 Oligarchy “Rule by a few” Power can be based on several things: Military strength = military juntaFamily power = AristocracyReligious control = Theocratic OligarchyOligarchies can often come from or lead to other forms of government (like autocracies).
18 Theocracy“Theo” means “god” in Greek… so if a government is THEO-cratic that means it is rule by… A god or higher power.Leaders (autocratic or oligarchic) are usually religious leaders and society uses religious law to settle its disputes.Example: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a modern theocracy that uses the holy Islamic book, the Qur’an, as its guide.