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Anatomical Position & Directional Terms

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomical Position & Directional Terms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomical Position & Directional Terms

2 Body erect Arms to side Palms forward Head & neck forward
Anatomic Position Body erect Arms to side Palms forward Head & neck forward

3 Directional Terms #1 Anterior/Ventral Posterior/Dorsal Medial/Lateral
Internal/External Proximal/Distal Superior/Inferior Cranial/Caudal Directional Terms Anterior/Ventral: in front Posterior/Dorsal: in back Medial: toward the midline Lateral: toward the side Internal: within body External: outside the body Proximal: closest to the point of origin Distal: farther from the point of origin Superior: upper or above Inferior: lower Cranial: towards the head Caudal: towards the tailbone

4 Directional Terms Flexion/Extension Afferent/Efferent
Adduction/Abduction Eversion/Inversion Pronation/Supination Deep/Superficial Plantar/Palmar Flexion: decreasing the angle between two bones Extension: increasing the angle between two bones Afferent: carrying toward a center Efferent: carrying away or away from a center Adduction: moving toward the midline Abduction: moving away from the midline Eversion: turning a body part outward Inversion: turning a body part inward Pronation: turning a body part downward Supination: turning a body part upward ( as in shrug shoulders, palms up, “what’s up?”) Deep: away from the body surface, more internal Superficial: toward or at the body surface Plantar: toward the sole of the foot Palmar: toward the palm of the hand

5 Sagittal Medial/Mid-sagittal Coronal/Frontal Transverse Body Planes
Sagittal: divides the body or organ vertically into right and left unequal parts Medial/Mid-sagittal: divides the body or organ vertically into equal right and left parts Coronal/Frontal: divides the body or organ vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse: divides the body or organ horizontally or into cranial/caudal parts

6 Body Cavities Ventral Dorsal Thoracic Abdominopelvic Cranial Spinal
Ventral (Anterior) Thoracic: chest, superior to the diaphragm Right pleural: right lung Left pleural: left lung Mediastinum: heart (in pericardial cavity), trachea, right/left bronchus, esophagus, thymus gland, aorta/aortic arch, vena cava Abdominopelvic: inferior to diaphragm Abdominal: liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, intestines, spleen, kidneys, ureters Pelvic: bladder, female reproductive organs (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries), male reproductive organs (prostate, seminal vesicles, part of vas deferens), part of large intestine (colon, rectum) Dorsal (Posterior) Cranial: houses the brain Spinal: houses the spinal cord

7 Body Regions Head Neck Thorax Abdominal Posterior Trunk Extremities

8 Head Regions #1 Parietal Frontal Occipital Temporal Auricular Buccal
Orbital Head Parietal: top of head towards the back and sides Frontal: forehead Occipital: base of skull Temporal: sides of head Auricular: ear Buccal: cheek Orbital: eye socket Mastoid: behind the ear Nasal: bridge of nose Mental: chin Submental: beneath the chin Maxillary: upper jaw Mandibular: lower jaw Zygomatic: cheek bone

9 Head Regions #2 Mastoid Nasal Mental Submental Maxillary Mandibular

10 Larynx Trachea Cervical Neck Regions Neck Larynx: front of neck
Trachea: front of neck Cervical: back of neck

11 Thorax Axillary Clavicular Sternal Mammary Costal Scapular Pectoral
Deltoid Thorax Axillary: armpit Clavicular: collar bone Sternal: mid-chest Mammary: breast Costal: rib Scapular: shoulder blade Pectoral: chest Deltoid: shoulder area

12 Abdominal Regions Hypochondriac Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric
Inguinal/Iliac Abdominal Hypochondriac: under the cartilage of the ribs, right and left Epigastric: over/above the stomach Umbilical: surrounding the navel, belly button Hypogastric: under/below the stomach Inguinal/iliac: groin, right and left

13 LUQ RUQ LLQ RLQ Abdominal Quadrants Abdominal Quadrants
RUQ: liver, gallbladder, large intestine LUQ: stomach, spleen, pancreas, large intestine RLQ: appendix, large intestine, ovary, fallopian tube LLQ: large intestine, ovary, fallopian tube

14 Posterior Trunk Regions
Nuchal Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccyx Gluteal Posterior Trunk Nuchal: back of neck Cervical: neck Thoracic: back of trunk Lumbar: at small of back, lower back, waist area, lateral mid-abdomen, right and left Sacral: pelvis, tailbone area Coccyx: tailbone Gluteal: buttocks

15 Extremities #1 Brachial Antecubital Olecranon Carpal Phalanges Manual
Pollex Extremities Brachial: upper arm Antecubital: front of elbow Olecranon: back of elbow Carpal: wrist Phalanges: fingers, toes Manual: hand Pollex: thumb Femoral: thigh Patellar: front of knee Popliteal: behind the knee Tarsal: ankle Pedal: foot Calcaneal: heel of foot

16 Extremities #2 Femoral Patellar Popliteal Tarsal Pedal Calcaneal

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