600 C.E. - 1450 C.E. Overview Changes in migration patterns, culture, and trade Technology advances improve agriculture, capacity to trade Spread of world religions (Islam, Christianity, Buddhism) Islam influence most significant in era
Rise of Islam Islamist empires spread throughout Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, and India Trade and missionaries spread it to Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Great artistic, literacy, and scientific cultures develop
Other Religions Buddhism spreads to Southwest Asia, China, Korea, and Japan Christianity –Catholicism spreads throughout Western Europe –Orthodox Christianity solidified in Eastern Europe, Russia –Formally split in 11th century
Religion Millions converted, mostly from indigenous religions Many religious boundaries set in this era are still in place Rivalries arise between Islam/Christianity, Islam/Hinduism
Trade Luxury items (silk, spices, porcelain) traded in major urban centers (China, India, Middle East, and Byzantine Empire) - trickles into W. Europe, Africa Smaller trade networks w/in regions and across adjacent regions Spread of ideas, inventions –Compass: China => Middle East => Europe –Numbers: India => Middle East => Europe
Americas Remains isolated Mayans and later the Aztecs built upon accomplishments of the Olmecs. Incas dominate in South America
Africa Bantu peoples bring agriculture to South and East African kingdoms import Islam to further learning and administer kingdoms Largest African kingdoms in W. Africa - Mali, Ghana, Songhai
Changes - China Importation of Buddhism during years of uncertainty Eventually contained, made to fit within Confucian structure All other changes adapted to traditional framework - nothing revolutionary until 1911
Changes - India Muslim incursions bring Islam to India Muslim invaders control regional kingdoms No real unification of India Buddhism declines
Western Europe Christian / Muslim relations tense –Moors in Spain –Crusades –Ottomans in the East, siege of Vienna Europe fragmented politically Lacks exportable resources (gold, silk) Begin to explore trade routes, forced to Atlantic by Ottoman presence in Med.
The 13th Century On Arab civilizations/empire begin slow decline Mongols invade China, Middle East, Russia - threatens E. Europe, S.E. Asia –Facilitated international contacts, trade –Printing, gunpowder from China => Europe Would eventually give Europe advantage / strength to dominate world Plague - China to M.E. to Europe
The End of the Era Mongols defeated in China, Russia Byzantine Empire falls to Ottomans Europeans starting to sail down Africa New technologies available at end of this era would define the next: navigational devises, better ships, and GUNS!