Presentation on theme: "The Crusades 1096-1291. OVERVIEW: Crusades were religious wars between Christians and Muslims Lasted for 200 years Seljuk Turks had the city of Jerusalem."— Presentation transcript:
OVERVIEW: Crusades were religious wars between Christians and Muslims Lasted for 200 years Seljuk Turks had the city of Jerusalem and other areas of the Holy Land.
Byzantine Emperor asks Pope for help against Muslim Turks in 1095 Pope Urban II makes speech, riling up European Christians Take the holy land (Jerusalem) from Muslims
Why did people go on Crusades? Faith go to Heaven Gain wealth Sense of adventure There were 4 major Crusades.
About 50,000 Knights responded to the Pope’s speech and headed to the Holy Land Retook the city of Jerusalem and won back other parts of Holy Land Divided the Holy Land into four Crusader states Many Muslims and Jews were killed by the Crusaders The First Crusade was a SUCCESS. First Crusade (1095-1099)
Seljuk Turks retook part of the Holy Land and Christians were sent to take it back. The Second Crusade was NOT a success. After the Second Crusade, the Seljuk leader, Saladin retook the city of Jerusalem. Second Crusade (1147-1149)
Nickname: Crusade of Kings Richard the Lionhearted from England Philip Augustus from France Frederick Barbarossa from the Holy Roman Empire The Third Crusade was NOT a success. An agreement was made between Richard & Saladin that said pilgrims could visit Jerusalem & the Holy Land. Third Crusade (1189-1192)
Merchants of Venice want to destroy their trade rivals in the city of Constantinople. Crusaders attacked Constantinople. In this Crusade, Catholic Christians were fighting Orthodox Christians. Roman Catholics controlled Byzantine Empire for 50 years until the Byzantines retook it. Fourth Crusade (1204)
Crusaders loot and destroy the city of Constantinople. City of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire were weakened making it easier for the Ottoman Turks to take both in 1453. Result of Fourth Crusade
20,000 to 30,000 French and German children were to fight. Was it a success? No. Crusades ended in 1291 with the Muslims in control of the Holy Land and Jerusalem. For the Christians, the Crusades were a failure. Children’s Crusade (1212)
Feudalism almost disappears Power of nobles declines Power of the Pope declines Power of kings increased Constantinople and Byzantine Empire declined Religious intolerance increased Left bitterness between Muslims, Christians, and Jews Effects of the Crusades
Trade increased between Western Europe and the Middle East In Europe, the demand for products from the Middle East increased. Increase in trade encouraged the use of money and banks. Interest in exploration increased European technology increased as Western Europeans learned from the Muslims. More Effects of the Crusades