Presentation on theme: "The Crusades l Christians during the Middle Ages regarded Palestine as the Holy Land. l Due to the pleadings of the Byzantine Empire and tales of persecutions."— Presentation transcript:
The Crusades l Christians during the Middle Ages regarded Palestine as the Holy Land. l Due to the pleadings of the Byzantine Empire and tales of persecutions of Christians by the Seljuk Turks Pope Urban II called for a meeting at Clermont France in 1095. l Urban pleaded for Knights to stop feuding amongst themselves and fight the infidel and reclaim the Holy Land. l The Knights and followers who went to take back the Holy and became known as Crusaders, or marked with the cross.
The Crusades l Reasons for Europeans for going on the Crusades – Those who died on a Crusade were said to go straight to heaven. l The Church guaranteed protection of family and property while the Crusaders were gone. l Debtors had their debts canceled. l Criminals had their punishments relieved. l Riches and rumored wealth and the sense of adventure and making a name for oneself. l The First Crusade lasted from 1096 - 1099
The First and 2 nd Crusade l French and Norman nobles led the first Crusade, which turns out to be only successful one. l The Byzantine emperor worried about the Christian armies, but finally allowed them to pass through. ( he had reason to worry). l The Crusaders captured Antioch, Jersusalem, Edessa and Tripoli. l The 2 nd Crusade began in 1147 after the Seljuk Turks captured Edessa. l The Crusade was led by Conrad III, H.R.E., and Louis VII. Failed after 2 years.
The The 3 rd and 4 th Crusades l In 1187 Saladin the Seljuk ruler recaptured the city of Jerusalem. Europe responded with the Crusade of the Three Kings. ( really one King) l From 1189-1192 – Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa, H.R.E. l The 3 rd Crusade was a disaster – Frederick Barbarossa drowns, Philip II sneaks back to France to reclaim French lands from England, and Richard slaughters everybody and is captured by the H.R.E. and held for ransom. l The 4 th Crusade lands in Zara, a rival of Venice and captures a Christian city ( doh!!!) The army was excommunicated by the Pope.
Later Crusades l Later in 1204 the Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople, which never really recovers and is eventually captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. l The Children’s Crusade was a disaster, a few actually reached the Holy Land, but the majority disappeared or were sold into slavery. l There were several other Crusades but none of them accomplished anything, the last major Crusade being led by Louis IX or St. Louis of France. ( 1270) l He died in Tunisia that same year.
Effects of the Crusades l The failure of Crusades weakened the Pope and the authority of the Catholic Church. The Crusades also weakened European nobility when 1000s died. l The Crusades played an important role in stimulating trade between Europe and Southwest Asia. l In the Middle East the prejudice, murder and mayhem the Christians brought to the Islamic world, left a legacy of hatred. l For Christians that remained in the Holy Land the religious tolerance that was present before was gone l Trade and ideas were stimulated, teachings of the Islamic scholars, Library at Alexandria, etc.