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Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

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Presentation on theme: "Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems
Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

2 Section 1 vocabulary (6):
community, limiting factor, ecological succession, primary succession, climax community, secondary succession.

3 Community- (60) A group of interacting populations that occupy the same area at the same time. It includes plants, animals and bacteria. the different species that live together in a habitat


5 limiting factor, (61) Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the numbers, reproduction or distribution of organisms. Examples include sunlight, soil chemistry, space or temperature. Plant and animal species living in an area, competition between species.

6 Limiting factors

7 The range of tolerance the upper and lower limits of what an organism can survive!
Temperature, pH, oxygen amounts all can have limits. There will be a optimal zone where the greatest number of the organism will be found and then less will be found towards the stress zones…

8 2. Would an organism with a wide or narrow range of tolerance be more likely to survive better when abiotic factors are greatly changed? _______________why?

9 ecological succession (62)
The change in an ecosystem that happens when one community replaces another as a result of changing abiotic or biotic factors. There are two types: primary and secondary

10 primary succession, (62) The establishment of a community on an area of exposed rock that does not have top soil. A slow process! New rock formations Volcanic areas! Starts small with pioneer organisms first producing dead decaying material to help produce soil.

11 Primary succession

12 3. What types of organisms are pioneer species?
Why are they termed "pioneer?" ______________________________________________________

13 Climax community (63) A mature community that results when there is little change in the composition of species. The end result of primary succession. It takes a very long time for the climax community to be reached. Sometimes it is never reached.

14 Secondary succession (63)
The orderly and predictable change that takes place after a community of organisms has been removed but the soil has remained intact from an event such as fire, flood or windstorm. Pioneer species are the first to grow in this process . These are different from primary pioneer species. It is faster because soil is already present.

15 Secondary succession

16 4. What is the significant difference between primary and secondary succession?

17 1. How do unfavorable abiotic and biotic factors affect species?
SC.912.L.17.4: Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change, and succession. 1. How do unfavorable abiotic and biotic factors affect species?

18 5. What is a climax community?
6. What generally happens to the size of the organisms in a population as succession occurs?

19 Section 2 Vocabulary (3) :
latitude, climate, biome

20 Latitude (65) The distance of any point on the surface of Earth north or south of the equator. As you go to higher latitudes the temperature decreases due to the decrease in the sun’s intensity this is due to the curvature of the earth.


22 1. What causes changes in seasons?

23 2. How might global warming affect populations of organisms that have a narrow temperature tolerance?

24 3. How/why does latitude alter temperatures on earth?

25 Climate (66) The average weather conditions in an area Including temperature and precipitation. Latitude and altitude are major contributing factors to climate as is proximity to mountain ranges and large bodies of water .

26 4. What factors determine climate
4. What factors determine climate? Latitude and altitude = Temperature and precipitation

27 Biome (36) A large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communities. generally found at the same latitude and altitude, similar types of plant and animal species are found in the biomes.

28 5. What factors determine the 9 biomes?

29 Major Land biomes include :

30 Tundra: treeless, permanently frozen soil permafrost.

31 Boreal Forest: evergreens coniferous forest, taiga.

32 Temperate Forest: deciduous trees, 4 seasons

33 Temperate woodland ; mixed shrub less rainfall

34 Temperate grassland: fertile soil, drought, prevents large trees

35 Major Land biomes Desert: rate of evaporation exceeds rate of precipitation, on every continent except Europe

36 Tropical Savanna : grasses, scattered trees, low precip

37 Tropical seasonal forest
: dry trees drop leaves to conserve water

38 Tropical rain Forest Large amounts of rainfall tall broad leaved trees.

39 6. Name the major biomes.

40 7. How can climate affect where're species live?

41 8. What types of things could cause the climate be temporally changed and then alter the population sizes as a result?

42 Section 3 Vocabulary (2) photic zone, aphotic zone

43 Aquatic Ecosystems SC.912.L.17.2: Explain the general distribution of life in aquatic systems as a function of chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and temperature. 1. What are the major abiotic factors that affect aquatic ecosystems?

44 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater: Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands Low salt content! Lakes are divided into zones: Top: littoral zone: shallow near the shore, allows sunlight to penetrate through. Limnetic zone: open water: plankton free floating Profundal zone: deepest part, no light


46 2. What are some freshwater ecosystems?
Freshwater: Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and wetlands

47 Transitional Aquatic Ecosystems
wetlands Swamps, bogs marshes: saturated with water. Estuaries: transitional very diverse, freshwater and salt mix.

48 3. What type of aquatic ecosystem are wetlands and estuaries know as

49 Marine Ecosystems Intertidal : where ocean meets land
Photic: (80) a zone in the ocean water to a depth of about 200 meters also called the euphotic zone the area shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate! Large numbers of organisms can be found here!


51 5. Why is the photic zone so important?

52 Aphotic (80) Below the photic zone, sunlight can not penetrate!
Benthic: on the ocean floor. Abyssal: deepest part of the ocean These categories are based on the depth of the ocean.

53 4. What types of factors are used to divide the marine ecosystem into different sections? __________

54 6. If the salinity of the water was to change due to excessive evaporation or ice melts how might this alter the populations of organisms in the marine environments?

55 7. Where do phytoplankton live?
Why do they need to live there?

56 8. Describe the conditions and the life found at the
ocean's surface, in shallow water and in deep water

57 9. Explain the difference in the organisms found in the photic and aphotic zones.

58 Biomes interactive

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