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Ecosystems and Communities

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems and Communities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystems and Communities

2 The Role of Climate Climate: Average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region. Weather: Day-to-day conditions of weather in a particular place. The energy from incoming sunlight drives the earths weather and determines climate.

3 Role of Climate in an Ecosystem
How does climate shape an ecosystem It can determine what types of organisms(plant & animal) that can live in that ecosystem. The tolerances of those organisms (ability to survive) in that ecosystem is determined by climate The Climate is determined by the following factors The movement of heat by wind and ocean currents Latitude Trapping of heat by the atmosphere

4 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature on Earth remains within a range suitable for life because the biosphere has a natural insulating blanket (the atmosphere). Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range. The gases of the atmosphere act like glass windows or a greenhouse. The natural situation in which heat is trapped by greenhouse gasses is called the Greenhouse Effect. Without the greenhouse gases the earth would be much cooler .

5 Greenhouse Effect

6 Latitude & Climate Because the earth is a sphere(tilted) sunlight hits the different parts of earths surface at different angles. The different angles deliver heat in varying intensities. This creates three main climate zones on earth. Polar: Zones of the earth where the suns rays strike the surface at very low angles. Temperate: Area between the polar and tropical zones. The temperatures here vary as the year passes and the angle that the sunlight strikes the earth here changes. Tropical: The area of the earth surface near the equator. This area receives direct sunlight nearly all year long thus, providing the warmest temperatures.

7 World Climate Map

8 North American Biome Map

9 Shaping an Ecosystem Biotic Factors: (Biological Factors): Biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem. Abiotic Factors: (Physical Factors): Non-living factors like temperature, humidity, etc. Together biotic & abiotic factors determine the survival, growth and productivity of an organism in an ecosystem. Niche: Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses these conditions.

10 Community Interactions
Community interactions, such as competition, predation, and various forms of symbiosis can affect and ecosystem. Competition: Two or more organisms trying to use the same set of resources in the same place at the same time Competitive exclusion principle: States that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time. Predation: Interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism. (predator vs. prey) Symbiosis: Relationship in which two species live closely together. Mutualism-Both species benefit Commensalism- One benefits the other unaffected Parasitism- One organism benefits the other is harmed.

11 Ecological Succession
Series of predictable changes (death, migration, etc.) that occur in an ecosystem over time. Primary Succession: Occurs on the surface where no soil exists. Pioneer Species: 1st species to populate an area during primary succession. Secondary Succession: Succession that occurs after a disturbance that destroyed the community but not the soil.

12 Biomes A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities. Ten major Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Desert Temperate Grassland Temperate Woodland Temperate Forest Coniferous Forest Boreal Forest Tundra

13 Biome Animal Diversity

14 Biomes Cont….. Exception to the biomes Mountain Ranges Polar Ice Caps

15 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Estuaries Marine Flowing Water
Standing Water Freshwater Wetland Estuaries Marine Intertidal Zone Coastal Ocean Coral Reef Open Ocean Benthic Zone

16 Freshwater Ecosystems
Only 3% of the earths surface is covered by fresh water. Flowing Water Ecosystem: Rivers, Streams, Creeks, and Brooks are all examples of freshwater flowing over land (ecosystems). Water flows into and out of theses types of ecosystems. Standing Water Ecosystems: Lakes and Ponds are examples of standing water ecosystems, however water does usually move around within the ecosystem. Freshwater Wetlands: In this type of ecosystem water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year. The water here may flow or be standing (bogs, marshes, swamps).

17 Estuaries Estuaries: Wetland formed where a river meets the sea
Detritus- Particles of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of an estuary’s food web. Salt Marsh-Temperate zone estuary dominated by salt tolerant grasses above the low-tide line and by sea grasses under water. Mangrove Swamp- Coastal wetland dominated by mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants.

18 Marine Ecosystems Photic Zone: Upper 200 meters of ocean water where photosynthesis can take place. Aphotic Zone: Area below the photic zone where photosynthesis isn’t possible. In addition to these two factors ocean ecosystems are also divided by the depth and distance from shore. Intertidal Zone: Organisms that live here are exposed to regular extreme changes to there environment. Twice a day (tide changes) they are submerged in sea water and the rest of the time they are exposed to air. (snail, sea urchins, sea stars, etc.)

19 Marine Eco. Cont….. Coastal Zone: Extends from low tide mark to the end of the continental shelf(photic zone). Plankton, Kelp, Fish, Sea Otters, etc. Coral Reef: Diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure. Warm water ecosystems with diverse populations of organisms (Fish, Sea turtles, Sharks, etc.)

20 Marine Eco. Cont….. Open Ocean: The area of the ocean that begins at the continental self and extend outward. Largest marine zone, covers 90% of the earths surface, ranges from meters deep. Fish dominate the open ocean i.e. swordfish, as well as mammals like dolphins and other organisms like octopus can be found there as well. Benthic Zone: Refers to the ocean floor. Those organisms that attach themselves to the floor like sea stars, anemones, worms, clams, sea cucumbers, etc.

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