Presentation on theme: "Video Introduction. Lesson Essential Questions What are the major biomes in the world? What factors are used to classify biomes? How does an organism’s."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Essential Questions What are the major biomes in the world? What factors are used to classify biomes? How does an organism’s adaptation help it to survive in its biome?
WHAT IS A BIOME? The biosphere is divided into major areas called biomes Biomes – large regions of the Earth with similar o climate (abiotic factors) o plants o animals Terrestrial biomes – land based Aquatic biomes – water based
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES: RELATIONSHIP TO CLIMATE ZONES Terrestrial biomes are determined by climate zones Three major climate zones o Polar o Temperate o Tropical
MAJOR FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CLIMATE 1.Average temperature
MAJOR FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CLIMATE 2.Average amount of precipitation Annual Mean Precipitation
MAJOR FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CLIMATE 3.Average amount of solar radiation (angle of incidence)
OTHER FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CLIMATE Proximity to large bodies of water & mountain ranges Prevailing global wind patterns Gulf Stream shown in orange
GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF CLIMATE ZONES Climate zones are determined by geographic factors such as Latitude – the distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees Altitude – the height (elevation) above sea level
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOMES, LATITUDE, & ALTITUDE An increase in altitude has the same effect on climate as an increase in latitude Poles, 90° N or S
SUMMARIZE:WHAT ARE THE MAJOR ABIOTIC FACTORS THAT ARE USED TO CLASSIFY LAND BIOMES? Temperature Precipitation Sunlight
Soil quality is affected by an interaction of abiotic and biotic factors. Examples: Tundra: Permafrost; soil is thin and nutrient-poor o Permanently frozen (permafrost) because of the cold temperatures (abiotic) o Thin and nutrient-poor because there are fewer organisms (biotic) to die, decay, and contribute to soil quantity/quality Tropical Rainforest: Soil is thin and nutrient-poor o Warm, humid conditions (abiotic) encourage fast decay & recycling of nutrients from dead organisms (biotic) back into the soil o Frequent rains (abiotic) wash away topsoil & nutrients SOIL QUALITY:ANOTHER ABIOTIC FACTOR USED TO CHARACTERIZE TERRESTRIAL BIOMES
Temperate Deciduous Forest: o Plenty of fallen leaves (biotic) to decay & enrich the soil o Holds moisture due to composition = humus (biotic) + clay (abiotic) Soil Quality: Thick layer of fertile, nutrient-rich topsoil Desert: o Little rain (abiotic) to wash away minerals; they tend to accumulate o Fewer organisms (biotic) to die, decay, & contribute organic matter Soil Quality: Soil is mineral rich but low in organic matter CHECK YOUR UNDERSTANDING: GUESS THE SOIL QUALITY OF THE TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST & THE DESERT
BIOMES ALSO CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO BIOTIC FACTORS: ADAPTATIONS OF MAJOR PLANT & ANIMAL LIFE Similar kinds of plants (flora) & animals (fauna) exist within a distinct biome, even though the biome may not be geographically contiguous. Ex.: Desert plants from different areas of the world are thick & fleshy. Why? Even though organisms may be geographically isolated and not related to each other at all (different species), they evolve to have similar adaptations that are favorable for their unique environments. Example: Thick, fleshy plants retain moisture, helping them survive dry, desert conditions. How would leafy plants fare in a desert environment? Native to AustraliaNative to USNative to South Africa Australian, US, and South African deserts are geographically isolated
AQUATIC BIOMES Aquatic biomes make up the largest ecosystem on Earth o Marine (saltwater) o Freshwater (<1% salt content) About 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water Important abiotic factors = % dissolved O 2 and CO 2, temperature, intensity of light, and dissolved minerals all affect life in the water Aquatic biomes are also the most stable ecosystem on Earth o Stable temperature – water can absorb and release large quantities of heat with little temperature change o Very biodiverse (marine biome has the greatest biodiversity of all biomes) – stability increases with diversity; communities that contain more species will vary less through time in response to various disturbances
MARINE BIOME Saltwater Ocean salinity (salt content) ~ 3% salt All oceans of the world are connected, making the marine biome the largest biome on earth The most photosynthesis on earth occurs in the ocean (phytoplankton, kelp, algae) Includes open ocean, coral reefs, shores, & estuaries (where river meets ocean = varying salinity, varying water depth due to tides, high nutrients)
FRESHWATER BIOME Low salinity (< 1% salt) Flowing (lotic) = rivers & streams Faster flowing water = more dissolved oxygen, less nutrients Still (lentic) = ponds, lakes, and wetlands Less dissolved oxygen, more nutrients Wetlands are areas of standing (still) water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all wetlands. Still water accumulates dead plants & sediment on the bottom and will eventually fill in to become a terrestrial biome.
SUMMARY At the bottom of your last page of notes, summarize what you have learned about terrestrial and aquatic biomes.