Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems and the Biosphere Why??? What do animals and plants need to survive? Why are frogs showing up with mutations? How does pollution affect."— Presentation transcript:
Why??? What do animals and plants need to survive? Why are frogs showing up with mutations? How does pollution affect plants? Does Oil drilling affect humans? Other animals? Is the Earth getting warmer? How will it affect the way we live?
Terms to know Ecology: study of interactions between organisms and their environment Biosphere: part of earth where life exists Biome: geographical region containing several ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities Ecosystem: mixture of non-living and living factors in an environment. Community: all populations living in a given area
Population: collection of individuals of the same species in a given area whose members can breed with one another Organism (species): any individual living creature, either unicellular or multicellular
What makes up an ecosystem? Biotic Factors (Living things) (Living things) Examples: include all living organisms.
What makes up an ecosystem? (cont.) Abiotic Factors (non-living) (non-living) Examples include: type of soil, land, temperature, acidity, availability of nutrients, climate.
2 Essentials in an ecosystem: Energy and Nutrients… 1. Sunlight is source of ENERGY 2. ½ energy stored in plants as starch 3. Energy CANNOT be recycled=FLOWS 4. NUTRIENTS are recycled naturally by DECOMPOSERS
I make my own food!! Plants: We do photosynthesis and absorb energy from the sun. That’s why we’re usually green. They call us Producers or Autotrophs (self- feeding). We can store the most amount of energy. That’s also why so many animals love to eat us.
I can’t make my own food! Animals: We cannot get energy on our own and so we’re usually looking for something that can. We’re considered Consumers or Heterotrophs (different food) because We eat the producers or we might eat something that eats producers because we need energy too!
Consumers 1. Herbivores (primary consumers): We eat only plants matter Ex: deer, mice 2. Carnivores (secondary): We eat meat. Ex: Eagle, Tiger 3. Omnivores (secondary): We eat both plants and animals.Ex: turtles, bears, humans
I eat dead things. 1. Fungi and scavengers: We wait till something turns up dead (CARRION) and then get our energy. (vultures, hyenas) 2. Decomposers: breakdown tissues into organic matter to be recycled! (mushrooms, bacteria, worms, microbes)
Review Producers are…. Plants: Are also called…. Autotrophs because... They make their own food Consumers are….. Animals… Are also called Heterotrophs because.. They cannot make their own food Decomposers… break down dead material….they include…. Fungus and scavengers
Energy and Nutrients energy flows in one direction: from sun to producers to consumers
Food Chain A single chain or series of steps showing who eats who. Example: grass -- deer- lion Shows only a ONE WAY flow of energy
How to read a food web The arrow points in the direction the energy and nutrients flow. Ex: grass energy deer energy tiger They show complex feeding relationships that result from interconnecting food chains. Food webs are different depending on where you are on the globe. Food webs are good indicators to the health of the Ecosystem. If one animal goes extinct.. What happens???
What does that have to do with energy? The producers, consumers, and decomposers all work together to give each other energy. It forms a systems of levels: Trophic levels (eating levels): Shows Energy flow An animal at the top of the food chain would have to eat a lot more to get enough energy required for life. Energy is lost as things are consumed. 10% of energy from one level is available to the next