Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 Culture. 2 The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to."— Presentation transcript:
2 The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
3 Culture Material culture Physical or tangible creations (such as clothing shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share. Nonmaterial culture Abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people’s behavior.
4 Gestures With Different Meanings in Other Societies “Hook ‘em Horns” or “Your spouse is unfaithful”
5 Gestures With Different Meanings in Other Societies “He’s crazy” or “You have a telephone call”
6 Gestures With Different Meanings in Other Societies “Okay” Or “I’ll kill you”
7 Components of Culture Symbol Anything that meaningfully represents something else. Language Symbols that express ideas and enable people to communicate.
8 Components of Culture Values Collective ideas about what is right or wrong and good or bad. Norms Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
9 Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis According to this theory, language shapes the view of reality of its speakers. If people are able to think only through language, then language must precede thought.
10 Ten Core American Values 1. Individualism 2. Achievement and Success 3. Activity and Work 4. Science and Technology 5. Progress and Material Comfort
11 Ten Core American Values 6. Efficiency and Practicality 7. Equality 8. Morality and Humanitarianism 9. Freedom and Liberty 10. Racism and Group Superiority
12 Norms Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct. Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable. Proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable.
13 Formal and Informal Norms Formal norms are written down and involve specific punishments for violators. Laws are the most common type of formal norms. Informal norms are unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity. When individuals violate informal norms, people may apply informal sanctions.
14 Folkways Everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture. In the United States, folkways include: using deodorant brushing our teeth wearing appropriate clothing for a specific occasion
15 Mores Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences. Taboos are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable. The incest taboo, which prohibits sexual relations between certain kin, is an example of a nearly universal taboo.
16 Laws Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups. Criminal law deals with public safety and well-being.
17 Technology, Cultural Change, And Diversity Changes in technology continue to shape the material culture of society. Cultural lag is a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions.
18 Cultural Diversity Cultural differences between and within nations are caused by: Natural circumstances Climate, geography Social circumstances Technology, composition of the population
19 Cultural Diversity of U.S. Society: Religion
20 Cultural Diversity of U.S. Society:Race/Ethnicity
21 High Culture Classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities patronized by members of the upper-middle and upper classes, with time, money, and knowledge assumed necessary for its appreciation.
22 Popular Culture Activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to the middle and working classes. These include rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, and television.
23 Example of an American value: Consumerism “You are what you buy.” Advertising Television watching Growing debt How might this be viewed by other cultures?
24 The Old Order Amish Subculture Strong faith in God. Rejection of worldly concerns. Rely on horse and buggy for transportation.
25 Examples of Countercultures Beatniks of the 1950’s Flower Children of the 1960’s Drug Enthusiasts of the 1970’s
26 Culture Shock, Ethnocentrism, and Cultural Relativism Culture shock refers to the anxiety people experience when they encounter cultures radically different from their own. Ethnocentrism is the assumption that one’s own culture is superior to others. Cultural relativism views and analyzes another culture in terms of that culture’s own values and standards.
27 Sociological Analysis of Culture Functionalist Culture helps people meet biological, instrumental and expressive needs. Conflict Ideas can be used by the ruling class to affect members of other classes.
28 Sociological Analysis of Culture Symbolic Interactionist People create, maintain, and modify culture during their everyday activities. Postmodern Culture is based on simulation of reality rather than reality itself.