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Teaching English to Children The young language learner Five to seven year olds 2011 (99 下學期 )

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1 Teaching English to Children The young language learner Five to seven year olds 2011 (99 下學期 )

2 What five to seven year olds can do at their own level?  They can talk about what they are doing.  They can tell you about what they have done or heard.  They can plan activities.  They know that the world is governed by rules.  They have a very short attention and concentration span.

3 Other Characteristics of the Young Language Learners  They sometimes have difficulty in knowing what is fact and what is fiction.  Their own understanding comes through hands and eyes ears. The physical world is dominant at all times.  They are very self-centered.  They will seldom admit that they don’t know something either.

4 Eight to Ten Year Olds  General Characteristics  Their basic concepts are formed.  They can tell the difference between fact and fiction.  They ask questions all the time.  They are able to work with others and learn from others.

5 Language Development  By the age of ten children can:  understand abstracts  understand symbols (beginning with words)  generalise and systematise.

6 What this means for our teaching  Words are not enough  Play with the language  Language as language  Variety in the classroom  Routines  Cooperation not competition  Grammar  Assessment

7 Class Management and atmosphere  What is an ideal teacher?  Helping the children to feel secure.  The physical surroundings  Arranging the desks  Grouping the children  Who works with whom?  Classroom language

8 Listening  Listening in the classroom  Listen and do activities  Moving about  Put up your hand  Mine stories  Drawing

9 Listening for information  Identifying exercises  Listen for mistake  Putting things in order  Questionnaires  Listen and color  Filling in missing information  Rhymes  Songs  Exercises

10 Listening to stories  Telling stories  Creating stories  Reading stories  Independent listening  Questions and activities

11 Oral work  General comments  Limitations  We don’t know what they want to say.  Finding the balance  Correction

12 Presenting new language orally  Through the pupils  Using a mascot  Drawings  Silhouettes  Puppets  Other suggestions  Telling the time

13 Reading  Approaches to read  Phonics  Look and say  Whole sentence reading  Language experience approach

14 Reading a story from a book  Reading a class story  Reading texts based on the child’s language  Reading familiar nursery rhymes or songs

15 Silent reading  Building up confidence  Reading cards  Home-made books  Books for native speakers of the language  Easy readers for foreign language learners  Picture dictionaries  Books with tapes

16 Writing  Writing is not always easy  Writing is a good thing

17 Controlled writing activities  Straight copying  Matching  Organizing and copying  Delayed copying  Copying book  Dictation  Fill-in exercises  Dictation  Letters-cards/invitations

18 Free writing activities  Pre-writing activities  Dialogues  Description  Letters  Stories  Summary of dos and don’ts on free writing

19 Topic-based work  Why do topic-based work?  How to set about it?  Choosing your topic  Planning time

20 The Grammar-Translation Method  At one time it was called the Classical Method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical languages, Latin and Greek.  This method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature.

21 What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method?  The fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to literature written in the target language.  Students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of target language.

22 What is the role of the teacher?  The roles are very traditional.  The teacher is the authority in the classroom.  The students do as teachers say so the they can learn what teachers know.

23 Principle 1  A fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in it.  Literary language is superior to spoken language.  Students’ study of the target culture is limited to its literature and fine arts.

24 Principle 2  An important goal is for students to e able to translate each language into the other.  If students can translate from one language into another, they are considered successful learners.

25 Principle 3  The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction.

26 Principle 4  The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing.  Little attention is given to speaking and listening, and almost none to pronunication.

27 Principle 5  The teacher is the authority in the classroom.  It is very important that students get the correct answer.

28 Principle 6  It is possible to find native language equivalents for all target language words.

29 Principle 7  Learning is facilitated through attention to similarities between the target language and the native language.

30 Principle 8  It is important for students to learn about the form of the target language.

31 Principle 9  Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is a useful pedagogical technique.

32 Principle 10  Language learning provides good mental exercises.

33 Principle 11  Students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.

34 Principle 12  Wherever possible, verb conjugations and other grammatical paradigms should be committed to memory.

35 Reviewing the Techniques  Translation of a literary passage  Reading comprehension questions  Antonyms/synonyms  Cognates  Deductive application of rule  Fill-in-the-blanks  Memorization  Use words in sentences  Composition

36 The Direct Method  As with the Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method is not new. Most recently, it was revived as a method when the goal of instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate.  The Direct Method has one very basic rule: No translation is allowed.

37 Principle 1  Reading in the target language should be taught from the beginning of language instruction; however, the reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking. Language is primarily speech. Culture consists of more than the fine arts (e.g. the students study geography and cultural attitudes).

38 Principle 2  Objects (e.g. realia or pictures) present in the immediate classroom environment should be used to help students understand the meaning.

39 What are the goals of teachers who use Direct Method?  Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language. In order to do this successfully, students learn to think in the target langauage.

40 What is the role of the teacher?  Although the teacher directs the class activities, the student role is less passive than in the Grammar-Translation Method. The teacher and the students are more like partners in the teaching/learning process.

41 What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?  Teachers who use the Direct Method believe students need to associate meaning and the target language. In order to do this, when the teacher introduces a new target language word or phrase, he demonstrates its meaning through the use of realia, pictures, or pantomime; he never translates it into the students’ native language. Grammar is taught inductively.

42 How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?  Language is primarily spoken, not written. Therefore, students study common, everyday speech in the target language. They also study culture consisting of the history of the people who speak the target language, the geography of the country or countries where the language is spoken, and information about the daily lives of the speakers of the language.

43 What areas of language are emphasized?  Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Although work on all four skills occurs from the start, oral communication is seen as basic. Thus the reading and writing exercises are based upon what the students practice orally first. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning of a course.

44 What is the role of the students’ native language?  The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.

45 How is evaluation accomplished?  We did not see any formal evaluation in the class we observed; however, in the Direct Method, students are asked to use the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge. They are asked to do so using both oral and written skills. For example, the students might be interviewed orally by the teacher or might be asked to write a paragraph about something they have studied.

46 How does the teacher respond to student errors?  The teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get students to self-correct whenever possible.

47 Reviewing the Techniques  Reading aloud  Question and answer exercise  Getting students to self-correct  Conversation practice  Fill-in-the-blank exercise  Dictation  Map drawing  Paragraph writing

48 The Audio-Lingual Method  Like the Direct Method is also an oral-based approach.  It drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns.  It also has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology.  It has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology.

49 The Audio-Lingual Method  Charles Fries of the University of Michigan led the way in applying principles from structural linguistics in developing the method, and for this reason, it has sometimes been referred to as “Michigan Method”. Later in its development, principles from behavioral psychology were incorporated. It was thought that the way to acquire the sentence pattern of the target language was through conditioning – helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.

50 Review the Principles  What are the goals of teachers who use the Audio-Lingual Method?  Teachers want their students to be use the target language communicatively. In order to do this, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their native language.

51 What is the role of teacher?  The teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her students. She is also responsible for providing her students with a good model for imitation.

52 What is the role of the student?  Students are imitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes she supplies of model speakers. They follow the teacher’s directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible.

53 What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?  New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogs. The dialogs are learned through imitation and repetition. Drills are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialogue. Students’ successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is induced from the examples given; explicit grammar rules are not provided. Cultural information is contextualized in the dialogs or presented by the teacher. Students’ reading and written work is based upon the oral work they did earlier.

54 What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?  There is student-to-student interaction in chain drills or when students take different roles in dialogs, but this interaction is teacher-directed. Most of the interaction is between teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.

55 How is the language viewed?  The view of language in the Audio-Lingual Method has been influenced by descriptive linguists. Every language is seen as having its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels: phonological, morphological, and syntactic. Each level has its own distinctive patterns.  Everyday speech is emphasized in the Audio- Lingual Method. The level of complexity of the speech is graded, however, so that beginning students are presented with only pattern. Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.

56 What areas of language are emphasized?  Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. A grammatical pattern is not the same as a sentence. For instance, underlying the following three sentences is the same grammatical pattern: Meg called, The Blue Jays won, The team practiced.

57 What language skills are emphasized?  The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The oral/aural skills receive most of the attention. What students write they have first been introduced to orally. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often by students working in language laboratories on discrimination between members of minimal pairs.

58 What is the role of the students’ native language?  The habits of the students’ native language are thought to interfere with the students’ attempts to master the target language. Therefore, the target language is used in the classroom, not the students’ native language. A contrastive analysis between the students’ native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher should expect the most interference.

59 How is evaluation accomplished?  The answer to this question is not obvious because we did not actually observe the students in this class taking a formal test. If we had, we would have seen that it was discrete-point in nature, that is, each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time. Students might be asked to distinguish between words in a minimal pair, for example, or to supply an appropriate verb from in a sentence.

60 How does the teacher respond to student errors?  Students errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.

61 Reviewing the Techniques?  Dialogue memorization  Backward build-up drill  Repetition drill  Chain drill  Single-slot substitution drill  Multiple-slot substitution drill  Transformation drill  Question-and-answer drill  Use of minimal pairs  Complete the dialogue  Grammar game

62 The Silent Way  One of the basic principles of the Silent Way is that “Teaching should be subordinated to learning.” In other words, Gattegno believed that to teach means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it. This principle is in keeping with the active search for rules ascribed to the learner in the Cognitive Approach. Gattegno looked at language learning from the perspective of the learner by studying the way babies and young children learn.

63 Reviewing the Principles  What are the goals of teachers who use the Silent Way?  Students should be able to use the language for self-expression – to express their thought, perceptions, and feelings. In order to do this, they need to develop independence from the teacher, to develop their own inner criteria for correctness.  Students become independent by relying on themselves. The teacher, therefore, should give them only what they absolutely need to promote their learning.

64 What is the role of the teacher?  The teacher is a technician or engineer. “Only the learner cam do the learning,” but the teacher, relying on what his students already know, can give what help is necessary, focus the students’ perceptions, “force their awareness”, and “provide exercises to insure their facility” with the language. The teacher should respect the autonomy of the learners in their attempts at relating and interacting with the new challenges.

65 What is the role of the students?  The role of students is to make use of what they know, to free themselves of any obstacles that would interfere with giving their utmost attention to the learning tasks, and to actively engage in exploring the language. No one can learn for us, Gattegno would say; to learn is our personal responsibility.

66 What are some characteristics of learning process?  Students begin their study of the language through its basic building blocks, its sounds. These are introduced through a language-specific sound- color chart. Relying on what sounds students already know from their knowledge of their native language, teachers lead their students to associate the sounds of the target language with particular colors. Later these same colors are used to help students learn the spellings that correspond to the sounds and how to read and pronounce words properly.

67 What are some characteristics of teaching process?  The teacher sets up situations that focus student attention on the structures of the language. The situations provide a vehicle for students to perceive meaning. The situations sometimes call for the use of rods and sometimes do not; they typically involve only one structure at a time. With minimal spoken cues, the students are guided to produce the structure. The teacher works with them, striving for pronunciation that would be intelligible to a native speaker of the target language. The teacher uses the students’ errors as evidence of where the language is unclear to students and, hence, where to work.

68 What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?  For much of the student-teacher interaction, the teacher is silent. He is still very active, however- setting up situations to “force awareness,” listening attentively to students’ speech, and silently working with them on their production through the use of nonverbal gestures and the tools he has available. When the teacher does speak, it is to give clues, not to model the language.

69 What is the nature of student-student interaction?  Student-student verbal interaction is desirable and is therefore encouraged. The teacher’s silence is one way to do this.

70 How are the feelings of the students dealt with?  The teacher constantly observes the students. When their feelings interfere, the teacher tries to find ways for the students to overcome them. Also, through feedback sessions at the end of lessons, students have an opportunity to express how they feel. Because students are encouraged throughout each lesson to cooperate with one another, it is hoped that a relaxed, enjoyable learning environment will be created.

71 Hoe is language viewed? How is culture viewed?  Languages of the world share a number of features. However, each language also has its own unique reality, or spirit, since it is the expression of a particular group of people. Their culture, as reflected in their own unique world view, is inseparable from their language.

72 What language skills are emphasized?  Since the sounds are basic to any language, pronunciation is worked on from the beginning. It is important that students acquire the melody of the language. There is also a focus on the structures of the language, although explicit grammar rules may never supplied. Vocabulary is somewhat restricted at first.

73 What is the role of the students’ native language?  Meaning is made clear by focusing the students perceptions, not by translation. The students’ native language can, however, be used to give instructions when necessary, to help a student improve his or her pronunciation, for instance. The native language is also used during the feedback sessions.

74 How is evaluation accomplished?  Although the teacher may never give a formal test, he assesses student learning all the time. Since “teaching is subordinated to learning,” the teacher must be responsive to immediate learning needs. The teacher’s silence frees him to attend to his students and to be aware of these needs. The needs will be apparent to a teacher who is observant of his students’ behavior. One criterion of whether or not students have learned is their ability to transfer what they have been studying to new contexts.

75 How does the teacher respond to student errors?  Students errors are seen as a natural, indispensable part of the learning process. Errors are inevitable since the students are encouraged to explore the language. The teacher uses student errors as a basis for deciding where further work is necessary. The teacher works with the students in getting them to self-correct. Students are not thought to learn much if the teacher merely supplies the correct language. Students need to learn to listen to themselves and to compare their own production with their developing inner criteria. If the students are unable to self- correct and peers cannot help, then the teacher would supply the correct language, but only as a last resort.

76 Reviewing the techniques and the materials  Sound-color chart  Teacher’s silence  Peer correction  Rods  Self-correction gestures  Word chart  Field charts  Structure feedback

77 Desuggetopedia  The originator of this method, Georgi Lozanov, believes as does Silent Way’s Caleb Gattegno, that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than ordinarily transpires. The reason for our inefficiency, Lozanov asserts, is that we set up psychological barriers to learning: We fear that we will be unable to perform, that we will be limited in our ability to learn, that we will fail.

78 Reviewing the principles  What are the goals of teachers who use Desuggestopedia?  Teachers hope to accelerate the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for everyday communication. In order to do this, more of the students’ mental powers must be tapped. This is accomplished by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning situation and using techniques to activate the ‘paraconscious” part of the mind, just below the fully-conscious mind.

79 What is the role of the teacher?  The teacher is the authority in the classroom. In order for the method to be successful, the students must trust and respect her. The students will retain information better from someone in whom they have confidence since they will be more responsive to her “desuggesting” their limitations and suggesting how easy it will be for them to succeed. Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, they can be more spontaneous and less inhibited.

80 What are some characteristics of the learning process?  A Desuggestopedic course is conducted in a classroom which is bright and cheerful. Posters displaying grammatical information about the target language are hung around the room in order to take advantage of students’ peripheral learning. The posters are changed every few weeks to create a sense of novelty in the environment. Students select target language names and choose new occupations. During the course they create whole biographies to go along with their new identities. The texts students work from are handouts containing lengthy dialogs (as many as 800 words) in the target language. Next to the dialog is a translation in the students’ native language. There are also some notes on vocabulary and grammar which correspond to bold-faced items in the dialog.

81 What are some characteristics of the teaching process?  The teacher presents the dialog during two concerts which comprise the first major phase (the receptive phase). In the first concert (the active concert) the teacher reads the dialog, matching her voice to the rhythm and pitch of the music. In this way, the “whole brain” (both the left and the right hemisphere) of the students become activated. The students follow the target language dialog as the teacher reads it out loud. They also check the translation. During the second concert (the passive concert), the students listen calmly while the teacher reads the dialog at a normal rate of speed. For homework the students read over the dialog just before they go to sleep, and again when they get up the next morning.  What follows is the second major phase ( the activation phase), in which students engage in various activities designed to help them gain facility with the new material. The activities include dramatizations, games, songs, and question-and-answer exercises.

82 What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?  The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course. Initially, the students can only respond nonverbally or with a few target language words they have practiced. later the students have more control of the target language and can respond more appropriately and even initiate interaction themselves.

83 How are the feelings of the students dealt with?  A great deal of attention is given to students’ feelings in this method. One of the fundamental principles of the method is that if students are relaxed and confident, they will not need to try hard to learn the language. It will just come naturally and easily. Students also choose target language names on the assumption that a new identity makes students feel more secure and thus more open to learning.

84 How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?  Language is the first of two planes in the two- plane process of communication. In the second plane are the factors which influence the linguistic message. For example, the way one dresses or the nonverbal behavior one uses affects how one’s linguistic message is interpreted.  The culture which students learn concerns the everyday life of people who speak the language. The use of the fine arts is also important in desuggestopedic classes.

85 What language skills are emphasized?  Vocabulary is emphasized. Claims about the success of the method often focus on the large number of words that can be acquired. Grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally. In fact, it is believed that students will learn best if their conscious attention is focused not on the language form, but on using the language. The “paraconscious” mind will then absorb the linguistic rules.  Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Students also read in the target language (for example, dialog) and writer (for example, imaginative compositions).

86 What is the role of the students’ native language?  Native-language translation is used to make the meaning of the dialog clear. The teacher also uses the native language in class when necessary. As the course proceeds, the teacher uses the native language less and less.

87 How is evaluation accomplished?  Evaluation usually is conducted on students’ normal in-class performance and not through formal tests, which would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning.

88 How does the teacher respond to student errors?  Errors are corrected gently, with the teacher using a soft voice.

89 Reviewing the techniques and the classroom set-up  Classroom set-up  Peripheral learning  Positive suggestion  Choose a new identity  Role play  First concert (active concert)  Second concert (passive concert)  Primary activation  Creative adaptation

90 Community Language Learning  The Community Language Learning takes its principles from the more general Counseling- Learning approach developed by Charles A. Curran. Curran studied adult learning for many years. He was also influenced by Carl Rogers’ humanistic psychology, and he found that adults often feel threatened by a new learning situation. They are threatened by the change inherent in learning and by the fear that they will appear foolish. Curran believed that a way to deal with the fears of students is for teachers to become “language counselors.”

91 What are the goals of teachers who use the Community Language Learning Method?  Teachers want their students to learn how to use the target language communicatively. In addition, they want their students to learn about their own learning, to take increasing responsibility for it, and to learn how to learn from one another. All of these objectives can be accomplished in a nondefensive manner if a teacher and learners treat each other as whole persons, valuing both thoughts and feelings.

92 What is the role of the teacher?  The teacher’s initial role is primarily that of a counselor. This does not mean that the teacher is a therapist, or that the teacher does not teaching. Rather, it means that the teacher recognizes how threatening a new learning situation can be for adult learners, so he skillfully understands and supports his students in their struggle to master the target language.

93 What is the role of the students?  Initially, the learners are very dependent upon the teacher. It is recognized, however, that as the learners continue to study, they become increasingly independent. This method have identified five stages in this movement from dependency to mutual interdependency with the teacher.

94 What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?  In a beginning class, which is what we observed, students typically have a conversation using their native language. The teacher helps them express what they want to say by giving them the target language translation in chunks. These chunks are recorded, and when they are replayed, it sounds like a fairly fluid conversation. Later, a transcript is made of the conversation, and native language equivalents are written beneath the target language words. The transcription of the conversation becomes a “text” with which students work. Various activities are conducted that allow students to further explore the language they have generated. During the course of the lesson, students are invited to say how they feel, and in return the teacher understands them.

95 What is the nature of student- teacher interaction?  The nature of student-teacher interaction in this method changes within the lesson and over time. As Rardin and Tranel have observed, the Community Language Learning Method is neither student-centered, nor teacher-centered, but rather teacher- student-centered, with both being decision- makers in the class.

96 What is the nature of student-student interaction?  Building relationship with and among students is very important. In a trusting relationship, any debilitating anxiety that students feel can be reduced, thereby helping students to stay open to the learning process. Students can learn from their interaction with each other as well as their interaction with the teacher.

97 How are the feelings of the students dealt with?  Responding to the students’ feelings is considered very important in Counseling- Learning. One regular activity is inviting students to comment on how they feel. The teacher listens to each comment carefully. By showing students he understands how they feel, the teacher can help them overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block their learning.

98 How is language viewed? How is culture viewed?  Language is for communication. Curran writes that “learning is persons,” meaning that both teacher and students work at building trust in one another and the learning process. Curran also believed that in this kind of supportive learning process, language becomes the means for developing creative and critical thinking. Culture is an integral part of language learning.

99 What language skills are emphasized?  In the early stages, typically the students generate the material since they decide what they want to be able to say in the target language. Later on, after students feel more secure, the teacher might prepare specific materials or work with published textbooks.  The most important skills are understanding and speaking the language at the beginning, with reinforcement through reading and writing.

100 What is the role of the students’ native language?

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