THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD & THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD
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1 THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD & THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD
2 What is the GTM? Its goals? A classical method first used in the teaching of classical languages Latin & Greek.It aims at enabling students to appreciate foreign language literature.The study of foreign languages grammar is thought to strengthen native language writing.Learning foreign languages was seen as a mental exercise to help students grow intellectually.
3 A Grammar Translation CLASSROOM: THE TECHNIQUES Translation of a literary passage: from L2 to L1, teacher works with students on vocabulary using the native language.Reading comprehension questions: students answer questions about the passage, teacher calls out each student to read their answer and corrects them.Antonyms & synonyms: Students translate word lists, try to find synonyms and antonyms.Cognates: similarities between L1 & L2 are emphasized.Deductive application of grammar: grammar rules are presented first then applied to exercises.Fill in the blanks: with new vocabulary or grammatical item.Memorization: word lists, new vocabulary and translations, verb conjugations,….etc,
4 Reviewing the principles: Role of the teacher?Role of the students?Interaction in class?Areas of language?Language skills?Role of native language?Student errors?Authority in class.Do what the teacher says.From teacher to students.Vocabulary and grammar.Reading and writing over speaking and listeningExtensive use of native language in class.Having students get the correct answer is very important.
5 WHAT IS THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD? This method was developed by Charles Fries.Following the principles of behaviorism (Skinner).Language is taught through conditioning, stimuli, response to form new habits of the second language.More focus is on spoken language and oral communication.
6 LISTEN TO THE TEACHER AND REPEAT Dominique: Bonjour.Pat: Bonjour.Dominique : Comment ça va ?Pat: Ça va très bien, merci. Et vous ?Dominique: Ça va, merci. Comment vous appelez-vous ?Pat: Je m'appelle Pat. Et vous ?Dominique: Je m'appelle Dominique.Pat: Enchanté(e), Dominique.Dominique :Enchanté(e), Pat.
7 AN AUDIO-LINGUAL CLASSROOM THE TECHNIQUES: Dialogue memorization: through mimicry, students repeat the lines until they memorize them.Use of minimal pairs: pairs of words that are different only in one sound (ship/sheep). Teacher chooses words to work on their pronunciation after doing a contrastive analysis between L2 and L1 to locate the difficulties.Grammar games: games in this method are used to practice a grammar point. However it includes repetition rather than creativity in using the language.
8 4.Drills:Backward build-up drill: when students have trouble, the teacher breaks down the line. The students repeat after the teacher part by part.Repetition drill: follow teacher’s model, accurately and quickly.Chain drill: teacher begins the chain asking a student a question then students one by one ask and respond. (controlled communication)Single-slot substitution drill: teacher says a line from the dialogue then says a word or phrase (cue). Students have to repeat the line putting the word in its right place.Multiple-slot substitution drill: Same as the single slot drill only teacher gives a cue that fits into many places in the dialogue. Students should make the changes necessary.Transformation drill: Teacher gives students a type of sentence (affirmative) they have to negate it (negative sentence).Question & Answer drill: the students practice asking and answering quickly.
9 Reviewing the principles: Role of the teacher?Role of the students?Interaction in class?Areas of language?Language skills?Role of native language?Student errors?Orchestra leader directing, modeling and controlling language.Imitators.Initiated and directed by the teacher.Sound system, grammatical patterns.Listening and speaking (oral skills) are the focus.No use of the native language in the class to overcome L1 habits.Errors are avoided as much as possible.