# Chapter 2 The Science of Biology

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Chapter 2 The Science of Biology
Targets: Describe the nature of scientific inquiry Summarize the nature of discovery science Outline the generalized steps of the hypothesis-based science State how the terms evidence, hypothesis, and theory are used in science.

Think, Pair, Share Answer the following questions by yourself: 1
Think, Pair, Share Answer the following questions by yourself: 1. What is science? 2. How do we do science? 3. What is not science? Pair up with the person seated beside you and share your answers.

What is the Nature of Scientific Inquiry?
It’s a way of understanding the natural world by asking questions and actively seeking to answer them.

What is Discovery Science?
Describes nature. Emphasizes inquiry and observation. Observation is the use of the senses to gather information. Observations may be descriptive (qualitative) Observations may be measurements (quantitative) An inference is a logical conclusion based on observations. Example: Jane Goodall’s work with chimpanzee behavior.

What is Hypothesis-Based Science?
Explains nature by applying the scientific method to problems.

Recognize the Question
After making observations, scientists ask questions- Why? What if? How? What effect does _________have on_________? Experimental (Independent) Variable: the one variable that you change Dependent Variable: the one variable that you measure (HINT: D = Data) What effect do 0, 1, 2, or 3 cans of pop have on performance on a memory test?

Develop a Hypothesis After collecting data, scientists ponder explanations… explains observations and can be tested. written as an “If…then…” statement. If the amount of pop consumed increases, then the performance on a memory test will decrease. Experimental/Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Controlled Experiment…
Test the Hypothesis Controlled Experiment… •All variables stay the same EXCEPT the experimental variable •Control group vs. the experimental group Control group: students who do not drink pop. Experimental group: students who drink 1, 2, or 3 cans of pop.

Analyze the Data Scientists then study the data and look for differences between the groups. What trends do you notice about reading, math, and language scores between 1997 to 2000? Which one changed the most significantly? How do you know?

Reach Conclusions & Share New Knowledge
Accept or reject the hypothesis based on results and discuss the experimental process. Share findings with scientific community so that new questions can be generated.

How are the terms Evidence, Hypothesis and Theory used in science?
Evidence: collected body of data from observations and experiments. It needs to be repeatable. Hypothesis: Must be able to meet the standard of testability and be falsifiable. Theory: a well-tested explanation that makes sense in a great variety of scientific observations.

Wrapping it Up: Answer the targets.
1. Describe the nature of scientific inquiry. 2. Summarize the nature of discovery science 3. Outline the generalized steps of the hypothesis-based science 4. State how the terms evidence, hypothesis, and theory are used in science.