2 What is Science?Science is a method of thinking about the natural world.Biology is the scientific study of life.
3 Scientific MethodThe scientific method is a procedure scientists use to seek answers to questions.
4 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD PROBLEM HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT FORM A NEW HYPOTHESISREPEAT THE WORKRECORD DATA &ANALYZE RESULTSCONCLUSIONACCEPT HYPOTHESISREJECT HYPOTHESIS
5 1. Identify a ProblemObservations are descriptions about the way something is or the way things happenFrom these observations, a question is formed about why or how
6 Example: Identify a problem Barney observes:When I drink Coke, I burp a lot.He asks Professor Frink:Why does Coke cause burping?
7 Example: Identify a problem Professor Frink explains:You can do background research to help you know moreLook online about the physiology of burping
8 Wikipedia - not always 100% accurate, but a good start for background information carbon dioxide in drinks causes gas pressure to build in the stomach
9 2. Create a HypothesisA Hypothesis is a prediction that may provide an answer to the questionThe hypothesis must be “testable”The hypothesis must be written in the form of an“If…, then…” statement
10 Example: Create a Hypothesis If people drink Coke,then they will burp more.Student example(s)…….
11 Hypothesis vs. TheoryHypothesis: is an educated guess that can be tested and may or may not be trueTheory: a well-tested hypothesis that is supported by many types of observationsIn science, theories are nearly factsEx. Theory of Evolution,Theory of Relativity,Cell Theory
12 3. Controlled Experiment Test the hypothesisProcedure—the steps followed during an experimentWell designed experiments have a control group and experimental group(s)
14 Control Group: all variables are kept the same (constant) Used for comparisonExperimental Group: all the same variables except the one thing you are testing
15 The experimental group drink Coke. The control group drink water.Independent VariableControl
16 Variables: anything that can influence the outcome of the experiment Examples: age of subjects, health of subjects, having food or drinks before the experimentIndependent Variable: What you are testing(The variable that is changed)Dependent Variable: what is measured or observedThe variable that changes because of the independent variable
17 Example: Experiment Independent Variable: type of beverage Dependent Variable average number of burpsControlIndependent Variable
18 4. Record Data & Analyze Collect & record Data (information) Qualitative data: descriptionsQuantitative data: numbersData can be recorded in a tableAnalyze the data by graphing itBar graphs: show comparisonsLine graphs: show changes over time
19 Example: Recording Data Average # of BurpsControl Group: Water2Experimental Group: Coke6Dependent Variable: what you measureIndependent VariableControl
20 Analyze the Results: Bar Graph Proper unitsTitleAverage Number of Burps for Water vs. CokeY-axis = Dependent VariableType of BeverageX-axis = Independent VariableLabel
21 5. ConclusionsThe results tell whether the hypothesis was “accepted or rejected”
22 Example: Conclusion Accept or reject the hypothesis? Why? ACCEPT! There were more burps with Coke than with water based on the data and the results of the graph.
23 6. Repeat the WorkWhen a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, it is considered valid.When a hypothesis is not supported, it means that we need to go back and ask new questions or identify sources of error in the experiment.
24 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD FORM A NEW HYPOTHESIS REPEAT THE WORK ACCEPT HYPOTHESISREJECT HYPOTHESIS
25 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD PROBLEM HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT FORM A NEW HYPOTHESISREPEAT THE WORKRECORD DATA &ANALYZE RESULTSCONCLUSIONACCEPT HYPOTHESISREJECT HYPOTHESIS