Indian Subcontinent This area of Asia is separated from the rest of the continent by the highest mountains in the world Mountains to north and desert to the east protect from invasion Indus and Ganges Rivers provide fertile land
Environmental Challenges Yearly floods unpredictable Rivers could change course Monsoon winds were unpredictable, causing rains to be unpredictable
Harrapan Civilization Indus Valley civilization called this due to findings at city of Harrapa Cities used a grid like system of roads Homes made of standard size bricks Early plumbing and drainage system
Indus Valley Culture Had language, but isn’t understood today Little division of social classes Not much knowledge of religion Great at trade Peaceful people who did not worry about war
Reflection What do you believe was the greatest achievement of the Ancient Indus River Valley?
Ancient China Two major rivers, Huang He, or Yellow River, and the Chang Jiang, or Yangtze River Isolated to rest of world by Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Pacific Ocean, and large mountains and deserts to the west
Environmental Challenges Huang He floods could destroy entire cities Isolated and had to rely on own resources Natural barriers did not completely protect from invaders Only 10% of China’s land is good for farming
Ancient Chinese Dynasties First dynasty was the Xia Dynasty around 2000 B.C. Led by Yu, a mathematician and engineer, who helped control the flooding with irrigation system Shang Dynasty was first Chinese rulers to leave written records
Ancient Chinese Dynasties Shang Dynasty were constantly waging war Zhou Dynasty did not change culture of Shang Believed in Mandate of Heaven which meant ruler had divine approval, but if he was evil or foolish, he would lose the right to rule
Feudalism Dynasty gave power to family and noble to govern different regions Would grant use of land in return for protection of king and people Regions became more powerful and began fighting, leading to end of Zhou Dynasty
Reflection Describe the similarities between the ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley and China to the other ancient civilizations we have discussed.