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From Republic to Empire

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic to Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic to Empire

2 Imperialism Romans were committed to a policy of imperialism-establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. Other conquests Macedonia Greece Asia Minor Provinces

3 Social and Economic Effect
Rome starts to become the center of the world, because of all of the riches. Wealthy Roman family’s establish Latifundia-huge estates

4 Negative Effects Rome was becoming very rich, but this led to the economic gap between rich and poor to increase. Small farmers could not compete with the latifundias and their slave labor. Angry mobs start to riot

5 Attempts at Reform Two young patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus start political reform Tiberius - distribute land to the poor Gaius- buy grain for the poor, by using public funds.

6 Decline of the Republic
Rome was unable to resolve its problems peacefully and civil wars ignite. Slave uprisings Army loyalty shifts to generals themselves instead of to Rome

7 Spartacus Spartacus was born in Thrace, became a soldier, and was captured by the Romans. He was sold as a slave to be made a gladiator.

8 Spartacus With 70 comrades, he escaped, hid on Mount Vesuvius, and raised a large army of rebel slaves. With his army he defeated two Roman legions.

9 Spartacus Spartacus intended to lead slaves over the Alps and to go home, but the slaves encouraged him to march on Rome.

10 Spartacus A fresh Roman army under Crassus finally defeated Spartacus and his men. After his defeat, 6000 men were crucified as a warning to other slaves.

11 A Weakening Republic By 133 BC the Roman Republic faced many problems.
Social War breaks out in 91 BC and bloodshed resulted finally in Rome (Senate) gaining control of the allied cities that had rebelled

12 Julius Caesar's rise to power
Out of the chaos, rose Julius Caesar an ambitious military commander. The Republic starts to weaken as a result of the events that take place during Caesar’s rise

13 First Triumvirate Triumvirate means “rule by three”
Caesar joins Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus as the first triumvirate. Caesar knew that with a loyal army behind him he could gain control of Rome

14 Caesar’s Actions Crassus dies in battle in 53 BC and Pompey is declared sole consul. Weary of Caesar’s power he orders him back to Rome without his army. Caesar refuses

15 Continued Instead, Caesar marches towards Rome with his army and Pompey flees to Greece. Crossing the Rubicon “The die is cast” Caesar and his conquest in Gaul (France) Cleopatra’s appointment to the throne in Egypt.

16 The Rule of Caesar Caesar increases the Senate to 900 members, but reduced it’s power after being declared dictator for life. Senator’s begin to revolt. Led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus March 15, the Ides of March-44 BC. The conspirators kill Caesar in the Senate

17 “Et tu Brute” These were believed to be Caesar’s last words which means even you Brutus. He really said, “and thou Brutus, my child! Caesar believed that Brutus was his son, he had an affair with Brutus’s mother lasting some twenty years.

18 Afterwards After Caesar’s death, he intended for his grandnephew Octavian to take the thrown. A struggle for power however broke out

19 Second Triumvirate Octavian (19), Marc Antony (General), and Lepidus, Caesar’s second in command make the second triumvirate Marc Antony along with Octavian begin to hunt down the conspirators.

20 Antony and his conquests
Antony led an army east, re-conquering Syria and Asia Minor from the armies of Brutus and Cassius. Then he joined his ally Cleopatra in Egypt. Octavian forced Lepidus to retire.

21 Antony and Octavian Antony and Octavian divided the Roman world.
Antony took the east, and Octavian the west. Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare war on Antony and Cleopatra Octavian defeats Antony’s forces in Alexandria and Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.

22 Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD) Octavian learned from Caesar’s mistakes, and did not present himself as an emperor. Senate gave Octavian the name Augustus “the revered one” Augustus Caesar (Octavian)

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