2 Social War leads to powerful leaders With the ending of the Social War in 287 BC plebs now had political equality in Rome.Plebs can now pass laws for all Roman Citizens, one Consul has to be a Pleb and the Tribune of the Plebs could veto any law.As a result future Roman leaders and generals saw the power of the Plebs and aligned with them.These men included – Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompey and Julius Caesar.These men and their actions would destroy the Republic and usher in the Empire.
3 CRISIS IN THE REPUBLIC!!In times of Crisis, Rome would suspend democracy in the republic and appoint one military dictator.458 BC – “Cincinnatus leaves his plow.”His example of civic duty and returning power to the senate made him a hero to the republic.390 BC – The Gauls (northern barbarians) invade Rome and burn and loot the city.For now on Rome would choose security over liberty and live in constant fear of enemy invasion.
4 RISE OF POLITICAL PARTIES Two political parties would form in RomeThe “Populares” meaning “favoring the people” who were rich aristocrats that gained power through the Assembly of the Plebs and Tribune.The “Optimates” meaning “Best Men” which wanted to limit the power of the Assembly and Tribune and wanted to keep power in the hands of the Senate and wealthy Patricians.
5 RISE OF POWERFUL LEADERS Four leaders would rise to power and break from Roman tradition.By breaking from Roman tradition their actions would lead to the destruction of the republic.These men were Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
6 TIBERIUS AND GAIUS GRACCHUS Tiberius and Gaius were brothers that both served as Tribune of the Plebs.As Tribune they wanted to redistribute land.Meaning take land from rich Patricians and give it to poor Plebs.Went to the Assembly and bypassed Senate to pass their law.Senate very upset!!Tiberius- murdered by senate mob and clubbed to deathGauis – Committed Suicide on Aventine.Lasting impacts – Violence and murder solves disputes.
8 GAIUS MARIUS Roman General and Consul – 7 times consul War hero – provided new lands, riches and security.Famous for reforming army“Client Armies.” – welcome poor Romans!!Lasting impacts – Armies more loyal to generals then to Rome.
10 LUCIUS CORNELIUS SULLA General, Consul and DictatorFamous general put down rebellions in Italy.War in Asia Minor – Who leads? Marius or Sulla?Senate appoints Sulla, Assembly appoints Marius.Sparks Rome’s first civil warSulla marches his Army on Rome in 88 BC!!! And takes power.
12 SULLA CONT. Sulla was named “Dictator until the republic is restored.” Sulla posts his “Proscription Lists.”Any name on it considered enemy of the state and stripped of their Roman citizenship.Kill them and you get their money and land as a reward!!Thousands of Sulla’s enemies would be slaughtered.Reforms – Sulla hated Tribunes and Assembly. He strengthened the Senate and weakened the power of Tribune and Assembly.
13 LASTING IMPACTS OF SULLA With absolute power Sulla still stayed true to tradition and resigned as dictator in 81 BC returning power to senate.Showed weakness of Senate, Armies still loyal to generals.Ushered in future Generals – Pompey and Caesar. Their civil war would destroy the republicProvided Caesar on how to gain power and become dictator for life.
14 POMPEY MAGNUS General and politician Rose to power under Sulla Famous for conquests and finishing off the Spartacus slave revolt.The Plebs loved Pompey!!!!Ignored the Senate and refused to disband his army. (Tradition)Restored some power to the plebs lost under Sulla.70 B.C. Elected Consul at age 35 without even being a senator. (Tradition)Served with Caesar and Crassus on the First Triumvirate. (Military, political alliance between the 3 most powerful people in the republic.)
16 POMPEY MAGNUSAlliance falls apart when Crassus dies in battle and Pompey’s Wife Julia (Caesar’s daughter) dies in child birth.With Caesar becoming more and more popular with the Plebs after his conquest in Gaul, Pompey resents this.Sides with “Optimates” and the senate and decrees Caesar an enemy of Rome.In response, Caesar crosses the Rubicon with his army and marches on Rome. (Illegal)Pompey forced to flee city.Caesar wins the war, Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated being greeted at the city gates.
17 JULIUS CAESAR General, Consul, Dictator. “Populares” Famous for conquering Gaul (France) and defeating Pompey.Gaius Marius was Caesar’s uncle as a result Sulla considered executing Caesar but didn’t.Battle of Alesia skyrockets Caesar’s popularity with the Plebs and brings new riches to Rome.Defeats Pompey in a civil war and named HIMSELF dictator for life.
19 JULIUS CAESARCaesar now had total control of Rome with an army to back it up.He even had a golden chair for himself in the Senate. (King’s throne)Fearing a tyrant, he was assassinated in 44B.C. on the Ides of March by a group of senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius.The republic was indeed not saved and sparked another bloody civil war between Brutus and Cassius against Octavian (Caesar’s Heir) and Mark Antony.
20 REPUBLIC DIESAfter the death of Caesar Rome falls into even more civil wars.The senate is powerless and backs whichever general is seen to be most powerful.Octavian and Antony defeat Brutus and Cassius avenging the death of Caesar.However, the peace does not last.Octavian and Antony turn on each other and go to war.
22 REPUBLIC DIES CONT. Octavian defeats Antony at the Battle of Actium. Antony commits suicide along with his allied wife Egyptian Queen Cleopatra.Octavian now is the sole ruler of Rome.Octavian takes on the name Caesar Augustus and ordains Julius Caesar as a God.Augustus markets himself as the savior of the republic and takes on the title “Princeps” meaning “First Citizen.”In reality, Augustus in the first emperor and the republic is dead.Under Augustus, Rome enters a long period of peace known as the “Pax Romana” or “Peace of Rome” where the empire grows even larger and richer and is free of internal civil wars for 200 years.