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Outline New materials can address societal challenges by:

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0 Materials for the 2020 Challenges: The view of industry
Carmelo Papa Executive Vice President, Industrial and Multisegment General Manager STMicroelectronics “Materials for the 2020 Challenges” European Parliament Brussels. July

1 Outline New materials can address societal challenges by:
boosting performances of key enabling technologies introducing entirely new functions in systems and changing manufacturing flow Examples of new materials in semiconductor industry: SiC and GaN for the new wave of power electronics Polymers and flexible electronics for healthcare Keep looking at advanced materials: e.g. graphene Bridging the gap between material science and market

2 A long path from materials to applications
electric/hybrid car From Materials to devices to systems… Applications ….and viceversa: problems from applications leading to applied and fundamental R&D Device engineering and industrialisation Early device prototypes Fundamental Material studies

3 Societal challenges calling for better power actuators: energy efficiency and…
Kyoto protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions 126$ Oil price increase Kyoto target -30% reduction in 2030. European Union targets reduction of 20% energy consumption by 2020 : 100BEuro/y savings, 780MT CO2 European Community impact 16% of world demand. 27 countries, 500M people. On 23 January 2008, the European Commission unveiled an ambitious package of proposals to to fight climate change and promote renewable energy in line with EU commitments. This Climate Action package builds on the many targets the EU set itself in 2007 for 2020 as part of the Energy Policy for the European Union including 20% reduction in greenhouse gases; 20% increase in energy efficiency, and increasing renewable energy use to 20% of total energy consumption. > 85% of produced energy presently derived from hydrocarbons 3

4 ….people concentration in megacities
By 2050, 7 out of 10 people will live in megacities, offering the benefits of concentrated living but also some of the biggest public-works challenges in human history.

5 Sensors around the body
Societal Challenges in Healthcare Healthcare spending is growing fast : currently 15% of GDP for USA, 8% of GDP for Europe Global Healthcare spending is more than 5 Trillion Dollars per year This spending trend is unsustainable for the future economy To counter this trends, the Healthcare industry must change A move towards Personal Home Diagnostic Sensors around the body

6 Emerging Applications require Smart Integration : Moore’s Law and More than Moore
“ More than Moore ” : Diversification “ Moore’s Law ” : Miniaturization HV Sensors Analog/RF Passives Biochips Power Actuators 130nm 130nm Interacting with people and environment 90nm 90nm Baseline CMOS : CPU, Memory, Logic 65nm 65nm Information Processing SoC and SiP mix for Higher Value Systems 45nm 45nm 32nm 32nm 22nm 22nm As IMS R&D we innovate mainly along the “diversification” axis, by integrating new or multi-functionalities in a smart system. The innovation along this path is characterized by the introduction of disruptive technologies and applications, as it enables to come with new entirely products which does not exist or it is not possible to develop with conventional semiconductor technologies, by System-On-Chip approach. “Electronics on flexible foils” , being an enabling technology for smart disposable systems integration, shall be among the next disruptive technologies in the decade, after MEMS, SmartPhones and SmartPower integration, since it allows to fully achieve innovative system solutions on substrates other than silicon, that can be flexible, conformable, lightweight, transparent and cost-effective. . . . . . . V V “Moore” approach: integrate more transistors in a chip “More than Moore”: integrate functions in a Smart System Innovation in More than Moore comes in disruptive steps Beyond CMOS: Quantum Computing, Molecular Electronics Spintronics 6

7 From Si Power Devices…….
The most recent Si MOSFET at ST Microelectronics 60 um Si wafer processing for advanced IGBTs devices 7

8 ….to SiC and GaN power devices
Better power density Lower losses Higher operation temperature Higher operation frequency Source: Yole Développement,

9 SiC and GaN power devices
2015 SiC and GaN power device TAM: $0.5B Gallium Nitride Silicon Carbide SiC Program 1200 V MOSFET (Q4 2012) SiC MOSFET vs V IGBT 64% die size reduction Much higher switching frequency GaN Program 650V / 15A HEMT 650V / 200A HEMT GaN Transistor vs. 650 V IGBT 40% Power Saving - 64% Silicon Area 1200 V IGBT 1200 V SiC MOSFET Source: Yole Développement, STMicroelectronics 9 9 9

10 SiC and GaN in Renewable Energy
Standard Inverter Smart Junction Box Power Optimizer Microinverter Moving electronics into the Panel for Enhanced Photovoltaic ST Solution Rectifiers (SiC, Schottky, Ultrafast) Power Switches (MOSFET, IGBT) Protections (ESD, EOS) Control Unit PLM, ZigBee Transceiver Metrology ICs Gate Drivers Power Modules Auxiliary Power Supply SCR’s DC-AC conversion and MPPT DC-DC conversion and MPPT Enabling lower losses and higher currents High efficiency full solar system PV Inverter System 2014 TAM: $8.8B, CAGR : 11% 23 Mu, CAGR : 63% Source: iSuppli 10

11 SiC and GaN in Hybrid & Electric Vehicles
ST Solution Rectifiers Power Switches (MOSFET, IGBT) Protections Control Unit RF Transceiver Gate Drivers Auxiliary Power Supply Power Modules PLM Transceiver PHEV: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Smart Power Electronics for a dramatic reduction of C02 emission HEV / EV Semiconductor TAM: $1.9B CAGR : 28% Source: Yole Développement, STMicroelectronics 11

12 Smart Systems are everywhere and require the introduction of a wealth of new materials

13 Automotive & Transportation
Flexible Electronics: a new material for Smart Systems Ambient Intelligence Security & Safety Portable Consumer Flexible Conformable Self Powered Autonomous Wireless Dislocation Cost Effective Disposable Light Portable Gaming & Leisure Wearable Electronics Healthcare & Fitness Human Interface Automotive & Transportation

14 ...adding material knowledge for Flexible & Disposable Electronics
Bio-materials Metal/Non ferrose (Al, Ti, Cu, Ag, Tg, Au, Ni) Polimers (Non Metal/Organics/Thermoplastic) Polimmide PVC COP PET PEN Ceramics (Non Metal / Inorganics) Polymers Advantages tenacity low specific weight workability Disadvantages low mechanic resistance degradation over time deformation over time Ceramics Advantages Good biocompatibility Chemical inert High resistance to compression Resistance to corrosion Disadvantages Low resistance to traction High specific weight Fragility Low workability Metals Advantages mechanical characteristics higher resistance to the use ductility Disadvantages Low biocompatibility Rigidity High specific height Corrosion in physiological environment

15 Increasing complexity by multi-foil 3D integration on flexible substrates
The project challenge is the development of interconnection technologies for autonomous, flexible and smart system: Interconnection technologies between flexible components and flexible foils as well as between functional foils. Three dimensional functional foil integration to achieve multi-foil based systems, i.e. system-in-foil. Technical Demonstrator Energy autonomous indoor air quality sensing system capable of wireless communication of the measured data. 15 15

16 Flexible Electronics at STMicroelectronics
Application fields: Printed sensors / Flexible ICs Multifunctional systems on foil Smart disposables for healthcare and ambient intelligence Technologies: From litho-based on wafer carriers … to printed electronics carrier-less To Hybrid system integration (e.g. multi-foil) Wireless Strain Gauge Modules for pressure and temperature Sensors around the body Examples: Sensors on plastic: strain/pressure, temperature, gas and biosensors Smart objects with RF harvesting and wireless communication Transparent and Flexible electronics, incl. printed organics and oxides Implantable sensors for glucose monitoring Hybrid Si-Plastic micro-fluidic modules

17 Sensor & antenna embedded in a silicone contact lens
Example:Contact Lens for Early Diagnosis of Glaucoma Application: Contact Lens for non-invasive early diagnosis and personalized treatment of Glaucoma (customer: SENSIMED AG) ST Sensor is a strain gauge & antenna embedded in a silicone contact lens The Sensor is capable of measuring cornea deformations due to Intra-Ocular-Pressure (IOP) variations The IOP Sensor is a wireless sensor that acts as a transducer, antenna and mechanical support for additional read-out electronics ST Wafer containing contact lens sensor The complete (Smart) System commercialized by SENSIMED includes: Contact Lens External antenna & data-cable Recorder Software Contact lens sensor Into the patient’s eye Intra-Ocular Pressure Disposable Sensor Sensor & antenna embedded in a silicone contact lens Telemetric chip Press release March 24, 2010: ST to develop and supply wireless sensor for Sensimed’s Continuous Eye Pressure Monitor 17

18 Example:Diabetes Management with implantable biosensors
Application: Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) As of 2010 about 285 million people around the world, are affected by Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus disease. Complications arising from diabetes can be both Acute and long term and include hypoglycemia, Ketoacidosis, coma, renal failure, amputations, neuropathy, and retinal damage. In the last decade Glucose sensing technology became the major research focus in diabetes management area, and 80% of biosensor market are the glucose sensors. Source: Over the next 10 years the cost of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke will take a tremendous toll on the national incomes of developing world countries. According to WHO, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke together will cost about $555.7 billion in lost national income in China, $303.2 billion in the Russian Fed.; $336.6 billion in India; and $49.2 billion in Brazil. Working Reference Counter 18

19 Example: Biosensors for healthcare & fitness
Amperometric sensors: from Glucose to Lactate monitoring Lactate levels are related to the anaerobic metabolism associated with muscle contraction: 0.6 ~ 2 millimoles in resting up to 20 or 30 mM during activity Athletes have to stop physical activity when they reach their lactate threshold. Aim: to avoid metabolic disorders and injured tissues during sport activities. Monitoring of several pathologic conditions, such as the case of patients with cardiac disease and diabetes. Multisensing of biological functions Biological chemical sensors associated with other physical and mechanical sensors, such as ECG, accelerometers, gyroscopes, temperature, pressure, light, etc.… It requires dedicated electronics able to acquire the signals from sensor, process them and transmit to a portable remote unit 19

20 From Healthcare to Ambient Intelligence
Multifunctional systems embedded in everyday objects: a) Wireless sensor networks Network of sensors embedded with low-cost electronics with RF & analog processing capability Opportunities: Multi-sensors integration at each sensor node Low power (either with battery or battery-less, where possible) b) Smart objects in packaging & textile High volume (existing market for RFID) Electronics on plastics, paper, textile Gas and chemical sensors in smart objects Flexible & streatchable electronics associated with other functions and technology drivers: e.g. displays, energy harvesting, ULP radios

21 Keep watching new materials, e.g. graphene
Thinnest material sheet imaginable…yet the strongest! (5 times stronger than steel and much lighter!) Graphene is a semimetal: it conducts as good (in fact better!) than the best metals, yet its electrical properties can be modulated (it can be switched ON and “OFF”) Record electron and hole mobilities (>×100 than Si) Superb heat conductor (>x40 than Si) Very high current densities (~4-8 mA/mm, equivalent to 109 A/cm2) Applications: new devices due to ambipolar transport, excellent electrostatic confinement, integration with Si and with flexible/transparent substrates Graphene has the potential to revolutionize numerous fields: Electronics, materials science, chemistry, bio-sensors…

22 European « three pillars bridge » to pass across the « valley of death »
Technological development Pilot deployment Pilot line Globally competitive manufacturing facilities Technology Production Science Products Product development Technological research Competitive manufacturing The valley of death represents the gap between “knowledge” and “market” Americans excel in this crossing and Asians commit their energy and finances to cross it, This valley of death remains a major hurdle for Europe To successfully cross the KETS valley of death, we propose a three pillar bridge that we have to build together. The first pillar "Technological research" consists of taking best advantage of European scientific excellence in transforming the ideas arising from fundamental research into technologies competitive at world level, protected by patent. This task is mainly realized by research and technology organizations. To be competitive at world level these research and technology organizations need to dispose of state-of-the-art technological facilities. Knowledge Market The valley of death 22 22

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