Presentation on theme: "Infancy through Childhood. A person’s patterns of mood, activity, and emotional responsiveness Shown within the first few months of life Differences can."— Presentation transcript:
A person’s patterns of mood, activity, and emotional responsiveness Shown within the first few months of life Differences can predict adult personality Because they emerge so early, probably genetic Temperament is often predictive of later psychological disorders However, environment does matter!
Emotional bonding between an infant and a parent or caregiver Not unique to humans, but we do not imprint Major social achievement of infants Initially was thought to relate to the mother’s ability to provide food, comfort, and security Harry Harlow Studied baby rhesus monkeys Wanted to find out what was most important Results….
About the same time that infants begin to crawl (8 months) they also begin to display stranger anxiety - this is universal The child recognizes who does and who does not being in his/her social world Mary Ainsworth and the strange situation Secure attachment: In mother’s presence they play comfortably. When she leaves they are distressed. When she returns, they seek contact with her. Insecure attachment (avoidant and ambivalent): Less likely to explore surroundings, may cling to mother. When she leaves, they cry loudly or remain upset and seem indifferent to her departure and return
Secure AttachmentAmbivalent AttachmentAvoidant Attachment Separation Anxiety Distressed when mother leaves. Infant shows signs of intense distress when mother leaves. Infant shows no sign of distress when mother leaves. Stranger Anxiety Avoidant of stranger when alone but friendly when mother present. Infant avoids the stranger - shows fear of stranger. Infant is okay with the stranger and plays normally when stranger is present. Reunion behavior Positive and happy when mother returns. Child approaches mother but resists contact, may even push her away. Infant shows little interest when mother returns. Other Will use the mother as a safe base to explore their environment. Infant cries more and explores less than the other 2 types. Mother and stranger are able to comfort infant equally well. % of infants 7015
Sensitive mothers and fathers tend to have securely attached infants May also be the result of temperament Or a combination of both! Cultural influences also play a role
What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? In such circumstances children become: 1.Withdrawn 2.Frightened 3.Unable to develop speech If parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels
Major achievement of childhood An understanding and assessment of who they are Self-esteem is how they feel about who they are Begins with recognition of self in the mirror (red-nosed baby) School age: children describe themselves in terms of their gender, group memberships, and compare themselves with other children See themselves as good at some skills but not with others By 8 or 9 self-image is quite stable
Vary along two dimensions: Support (empathy and recognition of child’s perspective) Behavioral regulation (supervision of the child’s behavior accompanied by consistent discipline and clear expectations) Authoritarian (low support and high regulation) Impose strict rules and expect obedience Permissive –indifferent aka uninvolved (low support and low regulation) Does not usually occur unless there is something seriously wrong
Permissive - indulgent (high support and low regulation) Submit to their children’s desires Make few demands and use little punishment Very warm Authoritative (high support and high regulation) Are both demanding and responsive Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them (but also explain reasons for rules) Encourage open discussion when making rules and allow exceptions, but there is no question as to who is running the show Consequences are educational, not punitive
What kind of parenting style do you think your parents use on you? Do your parents use a different style for your siblings? Do your parents use different styles? How do you think your parents were raised (what parenting style did you grandparents use?) Have parenting styles changed over time? What kind of parenting do you think you will use?
Children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, concerned, authoritative parents Those with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self-esteem Can prompt some rebelliousness Those with indulgent-permissive parents tend to be more aggressive and immature Also show a higher level of cigarette/alcohol use Don’t forget though…correlation does NOT equal causation !
Main agent of socialization The process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture Political attitudes, religious beliefs, personal manners Parents do not determine the parent-child relationship on their own (also affected by the child!)
On your own Read this section in your text (multiple times if needed) Be able to differentiate between all of the presented vocabulary words
Read pages 310-311 Peer group Non-shared environment
Psychodynamic theorist; Studied with Freud Developed stages regarding the social/psychological development of children Each stage is seen as a struggle/challenge between two ideas/concepts
Infancy (to 1 year): Trust v. Mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust (a sense that the world is predictable and reliable) Toddlerhood (1-3 yrs): Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt Toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities Preschool (3-6 yrs): Initiative v. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent Elementary School (6-puberty): Industry v. Inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
Combination of gender identify and gender role-awareness Child becomes aware of their gender and acts accordingly