Presentation on theme: "Dr: Amir Abdel-Raouf El-Fiky.. IIt is the study of the growth and maturation of the individual over an extended span of time. CChild psychology: is."— Presentation transcript:
IIt is the study of the growth and maturation of the individual over an extended span of time. CChild psychology: is a subset of developmental psychology. It concerns itself primarily with the study of the individual from birth to the beginning of adolescence A A dolescent psychology: is also a subset of developmental psychology. It concerns itself primarily with the study of the individual from the beginning of adolescence to its end
Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual, and personality development.
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Parent Styling
According to Freud, there are five stages in psychosexual development. Psychosexual development refers to the development of a sexual identity The five stages of psychosexual development are: (1) oral, (2) anal, (3) phallic, (4) latency, and (5) genital.
Oral stage: lasts for about two years (infancy). Anal stage: lasts for about one or two years (the stage of the toddler). Phallic stage: lasts for about three years (the stage of the preschooler). Latency stage : lasts for about six years. Genital stage: begins at twelve or thirteen and continues throughout adulthood.
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages,psychologySigmund FreudFreud’s theory of psychosexual stages Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.
According to Erikson, there are eight stages in psychosocial development :- (1) trust vs mistrust. (2) autonomy vs shame and Doubt. (3) initiative vs guilt. (4) industry vs inferiority. (5) identity vs role confusion. (6) intimacy vs isolation. (7) generativity vs self-absorption. (8) integrity vs despair.
Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Infancy Trust vs. Feeding Mistrust (birth to 18 months)
Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt ExplorationChildren need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority SchoolChildren need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Adolescenc e (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens needs to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation RelationshipsYoung adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage Basic Important Outcome Conflict Events Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on LifeOlder adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
According to Piaget, there are four stages of cognitive development: (1) the sensorimotor stage (2) the preoperational stage (3) the concrete operations stage (4) the formal operations stage.
According to Kohlberg, there are three principal levels of moral development: (1) the premoral level (2) the conventional level (3) the principled level. (There are six stages associated with the three levels, two stages to each level. The differences between the stages are subtle, and they will not be specified.)