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Eric Erickson Sigmund Freud ( ):

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1 Eric Erickson Sigmund Freud (1856-1939):
Psychoanalytic view - psychosexual model Erik Erikson ( ) : extension of Freud’s theory - Psychosocial theory

2 each individual passes through 8 developmental stages – "psychosocial stages".
Each stage is characterized by a different psychological "crisis", which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage. If the person is not able to cope with a particular crisis, the outcome will be more struggles with that issue later in life.

3 Stage 1: Infancy -- Age 0 to 1
Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust Description: trust parents for the basics (providing food & care & affection.) Positive outcome: secure attachment (parents & environment) Negative outcome: mistrust people, (even self). Important Event: Feeding

4 Stage 2: Toddler -- Age 1 to 2
Crisis: Independence vs. Doubt Description: Develop self-control & self-confidence (to walk, talk, use the toilet) Positive outcome: develop confidence to cope with future situations (that require choice & control) Negative outcome: doubt abilities & ashamed of self Important Event: Toilet training

5 Stage 3: Early Childhood -- Age 2 to 6
Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt Description: Find balance between eagerness & responsibility. Positive outcome: Certain things are not allowed, imagination is OK. Negative outcome: feel guilty to be independent. Important Event: Independence

6 Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years – Age 6 to 12
Crisis: Competence vs. Inferiority Description: School is important. Transition from the home to peers. Positive outcome: Intellectual stimulation Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority. Important Event: School

7 Stage 5: Adolescence -- Age 12 to 18
Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion Description: The "Identity Crisis", - the single most significant conflict a person must face. THE question "Who am I?" Positive outcome: ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: unable to make decisions (about vocation, sexual orientation & life in general) Important Event: Peer Relationships

8 Stage 6: Young Adulthood -- Age 19 to 40
Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation Description: Relationships. Must be capable of intimacy. Positive outcome: Share with others Negative outcome: fear commitment & feel isolated Important Event: Love Relationships

9 Stage 7: Middle Adulthood -- Age 40 to 65
Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation Description: "Generativity" - (care for next generation) Adults need children as much as children need adults Positive outcome: helping the next generation Negative outcome: self-centered and experience stagnation later in life. Important Event: Parenting

10 Stage 8: Late Adulthood -- Age 65 to death
Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Description: a time for reflecting (satisfaction or disappointments) Positive outcome: accept death with a sense of integrity. Negative outcome: fear death. Important Event: Acceptance of life

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