Presentation on theme: "Social Psychological Theories of Human Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Psychological Theories of Human Development
2 Sigmund FreudAustrian physician Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, believed that basic biological instincts combined with societal factors, shape personalities.The Mind works with three parts, these three parts must remain equal, or social problems will arise.
3 Freud Con’tHuman development happens in three stages that reflect different levels of the personality:Id: the id develops first. A newborn’s mind consists only of the id. The id represents a human being’s most primitive desiresSuperego: As children move from infancy into childhood, their minds develop a superego, or conscience. Someone with a hyperactive superego would be confined within a too-rigid system of rules.Ego: A healthy mind also consists of the ego, or the part of the mind that resolves the conflicts between the id and the superego. The ego balances the desires of the id and superego. Failure results in problems making decisions.
5 Erik. H. EriksonDrew from Freud’s theory and identified eight psychosocial stages of development.Each stage involves a crisis (or potential crisis) that involves transitions in social relationships:1. Trust versus mistrust (birth to age 1)If infants receive good care and nurture from parents they will develop a sense of trust.2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt (ages 1 to 3)As children gain a feeling of control over their behavoiur and develop a variety of physical and mental abilities, they assert their independence.If they are allowed to explore their environment, they grow more autonomous.If parents disapprove of or discourage them, children begin to doubt their abilities.
6 3. Initiative versus guilt (ages 3 to 5) If parents encourage initiative, children develop initiativeIf parents make their children feel their actions are bad/ they are a nuisance, children may develop a sense of guilt4. Industry versus inferiority (ages 6 to 11)Children desire to manipulate objects and learn how things workChildren's efforts that are praised (at home and school) produce a feeling of industryEfforts viewed by parents as silly produce feeling of inferiority
7 5. Identity versus role confusion (ages 12 to 18) Adolescents attempt to develop a sense of identityAs they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, teens may begin to feel confused or insecure about themselves and how they fit in to society.As they seek to establish a sense of self, teens may experiment with different roles, activities and behaviors.this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life.Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control.Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future.6. Intimacy versus isolation (ages 18 to 35)If an individual establishes successful relationships, intimacy ensuesIf they fail to do so, they may feel isolated
8 7. Generativity versus self-absorption (ages 35 to 55) Generativity means looking beyond oneself and being concerned about the next generation and the future of the world.Self-absorbed people my be preoccupied with their own well-being and material gains or be overwhelmed by stagnation, boredom and interpersonal impoverishment.8. Integrity versus despair (maturity and old age)Integrity results when individuals have resolved previous psychosocial crises and are able to look back at their life and having meaningful and personally fulfilling experiences.Despair results when previous crises remains unresolved and individuals believe their life as a series of disappointments, failures and misfortunes.
9 The psychosocial approach… focuses on social and cultural forces by examining development throughout life.encompasses the conflicts that coincide with major changes in a person’s social environment and describes how satisfactory resolution results in positive development
10 Read pages 119 to 123 to learn more about the social psychological theories on human development