Parts of Speech and Functions of Words
Part of Speech: NOUN Nouns name Kinds of nouns Person Place Thing
Abstraction Idea Emotion Kinds of nouns Common Proper
Function of NOUN in Sentence
Subject: Jack jumped over the candlestick. Direct object: Mary had a little lamb. Jack sent Mary an invitation. Indirect object: Jack sent Mary an invitation. Object of the preposition:
Noun function Noun in direct address: Appositive:
Jack, will you help me? Appositive: Mr. Smith, the grocer, rang up my bill. Predicate nominative or subject complement: Mr. Smith is a grocer. Possessive: Jack’s pail has a hole in it. The boys’ game was cancelled. The men’s game was cancelled.
Part of Speech: PRONOUN
Pronouns replace nouns: stand-in for a person, place thing or abstraction. The noun replaced by the pronoun is known as the antecedent
Function of PRONOUN in Sentence
Pronouns have all the same functions as nouns.
Kinds of PRONOUNS Personal pronouns – replace noun
1st person singular: I, me, my, mine 1st person plural: we, us, our 2nd person : you, you, your (thou, thee, thine) 3rd person singular: He,she,it; him, her, it; his, hers, its ( Note the possessive its has no apostrophe! it’s = it is ) 3rd person plural: They, them, their Interrogative pronouns – ask questions Who, whom, whose? Which, what?
Kinds of Pronouns Indefinite pronouns – do not require an antecedent:
Singular: another, any, each, nothing, one, anyone, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, something, either, neither Plural: few, many, some, all Relative pronouns -- create a dependent clause by introducing a noun or adjective clause The man, who hit my car, did not give me his license number. who, whom, whose, whoever, which, whichever, what, whatever, that
Kinds of Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns – point
This, these That, those Intensive pronouns – emphasize preceding noun. Same form as Reflexive pronouns – receive the action of the subject who is the same person Singular: Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Part of Speech: ADJECTIVE
Adjectives describe, limit or modify a noun or pronoun The blue dress was beautiful. Article Definite: the Indefinite: a, an
Part of Speech: ADVERB Adverbs modify or describe: verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. He ran quickly. He ran very quickly. The dress was cobalt blue.
Part of Speech: PREPOSITION
Prepositions link a noun or pronoun to other words in the sentence creating a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: preposition + noun He ran to the bus. She met me at six o’clock.
Function of PREPOSITION in Sentence
Prepositional phrases always modify or describe something. Adjectival prepositional phrases: The stew for dinner was delicious. Adverbial prepositional phrases: The stew was made with beef, potatoes, carrots and onions.
Part of Speech: CONJUNCTION
Conjunctions connect Coordinate conjunctions and, or, nor, so, for, but, yet Correlative conjunctions both…and either…or neither…nor Not only…but also Whether…or Subordinate conjunctions
Function of CONJUNCTIONS in Sentences
Coordinate conjunctions -- connect words, phrases or clauses of equal weight. Jack and Jill went up the hill. Jack fell down, and Jill came tumbling after. Correlative conjunctions – always used in pairs also connect terms of equal weight Both Jack and Jill went up the hill. Not only Jack did fall down, but Jill also tumbled after him. Subordinate conjunctions – create dependant clauses by introducing adverb clauses When Jack fell down, Jill tumbled after.
Common Subordinate Conjunctions
After Although As As if Because Before If Once Since That Unless Until When Whenever Where While
Part of Speech: INTERJECTION
Interjections exclaim or express emotions Ouch Alas Oh All those words you curse with
Part of Speech: VERB Verbs express action, state of being or condition
Function of VERB in Sentence
Main verbs Action: walk, sing, fly State of being or linking: is, feel Auxiliary (helping) verbs – combine with main verbs to create verb phrases Be: am walking, was sung Have: had flown
Principal Parts of Verbs
Infinitive: to be 3rd person present tense: is 3rd person past tense: was Past participle: been to have, has, had, had to walk, walks, walked, walked to sing, sings, sang, sung to fly, flies, flew, flown
VERB Tenses Present: Past Future I walk The bird flies I walked
The bird flew Future I shall walk The bird will fly
Perfect VERB Tenses Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
I have walked The bird has flown Past Perfect I had walked The bird had flown Future Perfect I shall have walked The bird will have flown
Progressive VERB Tenses
Present progressive I am walking The bird is flying Past progressive I was walking The bird was flying Future progressive I shall be walking The bird will be flying
VERB Voice Active Passive Jack threw the ball
The ball was thrown by Jack
VERB Moods Indicative – makes a statement
The cow jumped over the moon. Interrogative – asks a question Who jumped over the moon? Imperative – gives a command or direct request Jump over the moon. Subjunctive – expresses a wish or contrary-to-fact statement If the cow jump over the moon, I will be surprised. I wish the cow would jump over the moon.
VERBALS Parts of verbs that function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs
Present participle: being, walking, singing, flying The flying bird overhead is a blue heron. Past participle: been, walked, sung, flown The opera sung last night was Carmen. Infinitive: to be, to walk, to sing, to fly To walk a mile every day is healthy. Gerund (always as a noun): being, walking, singing, flying Flying is his passion
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