Presentation on theme: "What you’ll need to know for Freshman DGP"— Presentation transcript:
1 What you’ll need to know for Freshman DGP DGP NotesWhat you’ll need to know for Freshman DGP
2 Parts of Speech - Nouns Person, place, thing or idea Common (n): names a general noun; begins with a lower case letter.Proper (N): names a specific noun; begins with a capital letter.Possessive (pos n, pos N): shows ownership (girl’s)
3 Pronouns Takes the place of a noun Personal (1st person; pronouns having to do with “me”; 2nd person: pronouns having to do with “you”; 3rd person: pronouns having to do with everyone else)Singular nominative (nom) I, you, he, she, itPlural nominative (nom): we, you, theySingular objective (obj): me, you, him, her, itPlural objective (obj): us, you, themSingular possessive (pos): my, your, his, her, its, mine, yoursPlural possessive (pos): our, your, their, ours, yours, theirs
4 Pronouns Reflexive (ref): reflects back to “self” Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselvesNot words: hisself, ourself, theirselves
5 PronounsRelative (rp): starts adj. dependent clause (that, which, who, whom, whose)Interrogative (int): asks a question (which? Whose? What? Whom? Who?)Demonstrative (dem): demonstrates which one (this, that, these, those)Indefinite (ind): doesn’t refer to a definite person or thing (each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, several, few, many, none, one, someone, no one, everyone, anyone, somebody, nobody, everybody, etc.)
6 Adjectives(adj): modifies nouns (I have a green pen) and pronouns (They are happy.)Tells which one? How many? What kind?Articles (art): a, an, theProper adjective (Adj): proper noun used as an adjective (American flag)
7 AdverbAdv: modifies adjectives (really cute), verbs (extremely fast), and other adverbs (very easily)Tells How? When? Where? To what extent?“not” and “never” are always adverbs.
8 PrepositionPrep: shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence.Across, after, around, at, before, behind, below, beside, etc.We went to school. We went up the stairs.
9 Conjunction Join words, phrases and clauses Coordinating (cc) FANBOYS (for, and nor, but, or, yet, so)Subordinating (sc) starts adv. Dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by a subject and verb) after, since, before, etc.Correlative (cor conj) not only/but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/andNoun clause identifier (nci) starts noun dependent clauses – may or may not function as part of the noun dependent clause – that, who, whether, etc.Conjunctive adverb (conj adv) adverb that helps connect two clauses – must be used with a semicolon (It is cold; however, it is not snowing.) – however, then, therefore, etc.
10 Interjection(int) expresses emotion but has no real connection with the rest of the sentenceSet apart from the sentence by a comma or exclamation pointNo, I’m not finished with my homework. Wow! What a great new car.
11 Verb Shows action or helps to make a statement. Action (av) shows action – She wrote a note.Linking (lv) links two words together – can be linking: is, be, am, etc. – English is fun. (English = fun) – The flower smells pretty. (flower = pretty)Helping (hv) “helps” an action verb or linking verb – If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verbs, the first two are helping. And so on. – can be helping: is, be, am, etc. – We have been taking notes all day. (“taking” is action) – She will be cold without a jacket. (“be” is linking)
12 Verb tenses Present (pres): happening now (jump, talk, eat) Past (past): happened previously (jumped)Future (f): will happen in the future (will jump)Present perfect (pres per): “have” or “has” plus past participle (have jumped)Past perfect (past per): “had” plus past participle (had jumped)Future perfect (f per): “will have” or “shall have” plus past participle (will have jumped)
13 Verb tenses, cont.Present progressive (pres prog): is, are, am plus present participle (am jumping)Past progressive (past prog): was, were plus present participle (was jumping)Future progressive (f prog): will be, shall be plus present participle (will be jumping)Present perfect progressive (pres per prog): have, has, plus “been” plus present participle (have been jumping)
14 Verb tenses cont.Past perfect progressive (past per prog): “had” plus “been” plus present participle (had been jumping)Future perfect progressive (f per prog): “will have” or “shall have” plus “been” plus present participle (will have been jumping
15 VerbalGerund (ger): verb acting like a noun – ends in “ing” – Reading is fun. (subject) – I enjoy shopping (direct object) – Use pencils for drawing. (object of prep)Participle (part): verb acting like an adjective – ends in “ing” or “ed” (or other past tense ending) – I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street. It’s an unspoken rule.Infinitive (inf): to plus verb – can act like a noun (I like to eat.), adjective (It’s the best place to eat.), or adverb (I need a pen to write a letter.)