Verbs A word that expresses action, helps to make a statement, or expresses a state of being. The verb or compound verb (e.g. was looking) is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. Every sentence must have a verb!
Kinds of verbs Transitive verb - can be used in the active or passive voice (e.g. John drives a car. OR A car is driven by John) Intransitive verb- The verb is not followed by an object. (e.g. He plays the piano.) Linking verb- used to connect the subject to two kinds of complements: 1) An adjective that describes the subject; 2)a noun or noun equivalent that means the same as the subject. (e.g. She is beautiful.)
Adjectives Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun Ex: The big dog. Answers these questions: Which? What kind? How many?
Adverb Modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Interrogative adverbs introduce questions. (e.g. How, when, how often, where.) Answers these questions: How? (e.g. He ran quickly.) When? (e.g. She left yesterday.) Where? (e.g. We went there.) To what degree? (e.g. It was too hot.)
Pronouns A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns. A pronoun may stand for a person, place, thing, or idea.
Preposition Introduces a noun, pronoun, phrase or clause functioning as a noun. The word or word group that the preposition introduces is its object. (e.g. They received a postcard from Bobby telling about his trip to the United States.)
Common prepositions Aboard About Above Across After Against Along Among Around At Before Behind Below Beneath Beside Between By Down During Except For From In Into Like Of Off On Over Past Since Through Throughout To Toward Under Underneath Until Up Upon With Within without
Conjunction and Interjection A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words (e.g. Jamie and Sarah went to the store.) Conjunctions include: And, but, either/or, neither/nor. An interjection is an exclamatory word that expresses emotion. (e.g. Wow! Look at that sunset!)
Punctuation (1/3) Use a question mark at the end of a question. Ex: Did you take out the garbage? Use a colon to introduce a list. Ex: You need the following items for class: pencil, paper, ruler, and glue. Use a period at the end of a sentence. Ex: John went to the store. Use an exclamation point at the end of a sentence to indicate strong emotion. Ex: I love her so much!
Punctuation (2/3) Use a semicolon to… join two independent clauses. (eliminates the need for a comma or conjuction) Ex: Casey read a book; then he did a book report. separate items in a series when those items contain punctuation such as a comma. Ex: We went on a trip to Toronto, Ontario; Montreal, Quebec; and New York, New York.
Punctuation (3/3) Use a comma when… there is a series of at least three items. Ex: I dislike spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower. There is an interruption in the main thought of a sentence. Ex: Rosa, of course, will bring her folding chairs. There are two adjectives that equally modify the same noun. Ex: Jill was having problems with unruly, disruptive children. A dependent clause begins a new sentence. Ex: If Mr. Wilson complains, we will invite him for a snack. There is a mild interjection, such as oh or well.