2 NOUN Person, place, thing, idea Common (n): names a general noun; begins with a lower case letter (i.e. city)Proper noun (N): names a specific noun; begins with a capital letter (i.e. Alabaster)Possessive (pos. n., pos. N): shows ownership (i.e. girl’s, Luci’s)
3 PRONOUN (pro) Takes the place of a noun Personal pronouns: Singular nominative (nom)Plural nominative (nom)Singular objective (obj)Plural objective (obj)Singular possessive (pos)Plural possessive (pos)1st personIwemeusmy/mineour/ours2nd personyouyour/yours3rd personhe/she/ittheyhim/her/itthemhis/her/itstheir/theirs
5 ACTION VERB (av)Shows action (i.e. She wrote a note. The dog smells the flower.)
6 LINKING VERB (lv) Links two words together Ex. of verbs that can be linking verbs: to be (am, are, is, was, were, be, being, been), appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, etc.I.e. The flower smells pretty. (flower=pretty)
7 HELPING VERB (hv) “helps” an action verb or linking verb If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verbs, the first two are helping, etc.Ex. of verbs that can be helping verbs: is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being, will, would, can, could, shall, should, may, might, must, have, has, had, do, does, didi.e. We have been taking notes all day. (Taking is an action verb.)i.e. She will be cold without a jacket. (Be is a linking verb.)
8 ADJECTIVE (adj)Modifies nouns and pronouns (i.e. I have a green pen. They are happy.)Answers the questions “Which one?” “How many?” or “What kind?”ARTICLES (art): a, an, thePROPER ADJECTIVE (Adj): proper noun used as an adjective (American flag)
9 ADVERB (adv)Modifies adjectives (i.e. really cute), verbs (extremely fast), and other adverbs (very easily)Answers the question “How?”, “When?”, “Where?”, or “To what extent?”NOT and NEVER are always adverbs
10 PRONOUN (pro)-cont.RELATIVE (rp): starts adjective (adj) dependent clauses (that, which, who, whom, whose)INTERROGATIVE (int): asks a question (Which?, Whose?, What?, Whom?, Who?)DEMONSTRATIVE (dem): demonstrates which one (this, that, these, those)INDEFINITE (ind): doesn’t refer to a definite person or thing (each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, several, few, many, none, one, someone, no one, everyone, anyone, somebody, nobody, everybody, anybody, more, much, another, both, any , other, etc.)
11 PRONOUNS (pro)-reflexive (ref) Reflects back to “self”SingularPlural1st personmyselfourselves2nd personyourselfyourselves3rd personhimselfherselfitselfthemselves
12 PREPOSITION (prep)Shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentencei.e. We went to school. We went up the stairs.Common prepositions include: across, after, against, around, at, before, below, between, by, during, except, for, from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, to, under, until, with, according to, because of, instead of, etc.
13 CONJUNCTION Joins words, phrases, and clauses COORDINATING CONJUNCTION (cc): acronym FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION (sc):Starts adverb (adv) dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)Ex: after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION (cor conj):Ex: not only/but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/and
14 INTERJECTION (int)Expresses emotion but has no real connection with the rest of the sentenceSet apart from the sentence by a comma or an exclamation pointi.e. No, I’m not finished with my homework. Wow! What a great new car!
15 VERB TENSES Present tense Past tense Future tense happening now (pres) “I jump.”happened previously(past)“I jumped.”will happen in the future (f)“I will jump.”PERFECT“have” or “has” plus past participle (pres per)“I have jumped.”“had” plus past participle (past per)“I had jumped.”“will have” or “shall have” plus past participle (f per)“I will have jumped.”PROGRESSIVE“is”, “are”, or “am” plus present participle (pres prog)“I am jumping.”“was” or “were” plus present participle (past prog)“I was jumping.”“will be” or “shall be” plus present participle (f prog)“I will be jumping.”PERFECT PROGRESSIVE“have” or “has” plus “been” plus present participle (pres per prog)“I have been jumping.”“had” plus “been” plus present participle (past per prog)“I had been jumping.”“will have” or “shall have” plus “been” plus present participle (f per prog)“ I will have been jumping.”
16 VERBALA word formed from a verb but acting as a noun, adjective, or adverbGERUND (ger)Verb acting like a noun; ends in INGi.e. Reading is fun.PARTICIPLE (part)Verb acting like an adjective; ends in ING, ED, or other past tense endingsi.e. I have running shoes. Frightened, I ran down the street. It’s an unspoken rule.INFINITIVE (inf)To + verbCan act like a noun (I like to eat), adjective (It’s the best place to eat), or adverb (I need a pen to write a letter)