EXCAVATION EXCAVATION: The moving of earth to allow for the construction of a building.
FOOTINGS & COLUMN FOOTINGS: A structural support for the foundation and columns (usually poured concrete). They are set below grade. COLUMN: A vertical pillar (post) that is used to support "I" beams or girders.
FOUNDATION, SILL PLATE & SILL GASKET FOUNDATION: Poured concrete or concrete block that is used to support the outer perimeter of the building. SILL PLATE: A wooden member, which rests on top of the foundation. SILL GASKET: An insulating foam layer that sits on top of the foundation and below the wooden sill plate. It prevents the transfer of moisture from concrete to wood.
16 inches wide x 6 inches high FOOTING6 inch WEEPING TILE ¾ inch GRAVEL FORMS removed prior to drainage tile installation FORMS (lumber) THREADED REBAR (secured) 8 inch CONCRETE WALL (96 inches high) WATERPROOFING TAR (SPRAY) WATERPROOFING WRAP SILL PLATE RIM JOIST
“I” BEAM "I" BEAM (GIRDER): A steel member (or built up pieces of wood) that rest on the foundation and columns. Used to support the floor joists and distribute the load of the building.
RIM JOISTS & FLOOR JOISTS RIM JOISTS: Joists that are fastened perpendicular to the floor joists. FLOOR JOISTS: Secured to rim joists. They support the floor and walls of the building.
FOOTING FOUNDATION WALL PILASTER SILL PLATE RIM JOIST FLOOR JOIST COLUMN I-BEAM (FOOTING) SLAB
BRIDGING BRIDGING: A method of bracing floor joists and wall studding.
SUB-FLOOR SUB-FLOOR: A wood floor that is laid over the floor joists on which the finished floor is laid. Plywood is typically used.
RIM JOIST GIRDER (WOOD) / I-BEAM (STEEL) PARTITION SUPPORT REGULAR JOIST TAIL JOIST STAIRWELL DOUBLE TRIMMER DOUBLE HEADER
PARTITION & LOAD BEARING WALLS PARTITION WALL: Walls that do not support any load or weight. LOAD BEARING WALL: Walls that support the weight of the structure above them.
COMMON STUDS, TOP & BOTTOM PLATE BOTTOM PLATE (SOLE PLATE): The lower portion of the wall framing. COMMON STUDS: Upright supports found in the framework of walls. They are attached to both bottom & top plates. TOP PLATE: Attached to top portion of the wall studs. DOUBLE TOP PLATE (CAP PLATE): Secured to top plates. Used to tie walls together, and provides extra support for the roof rafters or 2nd story.
ROUGH SILL, CRIPPLE & JACK STUDS CRIPPLE STUDS: Short studs that are used below window openings and above window and door openings to provide structural strength. Spaced 16 inches on centre. JACK STUDS: Studs that support a header. They run from the bottom plate to underneath the header. ROUGH SILL: Horizontal framing member below a window attached to jack studs.
HEADER HEADER: The horizontal top piece over a door or a window opening. A header distributes the load when an opening has been made for either a window or a door.
FILLER STUDS FILLER STUD: A stud or partial stud(s) used in the inside corner of walls so that sheet goods can be fastened properly. (E.g. drywall).
BOTTOM PLATE JACK STUD JACK STUD SILL (WINDOW) KING STUD CRIPPLE STUDS COMMON STUD HEADER TOP PLATE DOUBLE TOP PLATE
INSULATION & R VALUE INSULATION: A special fiberglass material that prevents the passage of electricity or heat/cold. R VALUE: The resistance of a material to the flow of heat. Insulation is rated by a "R value".
SHEATHING & VAPOUR BARRIER SHEATHING: Sheet goods attached to outside of walls. VAPOUR BARRIER: A thin, moisture-proof, transparent type of plastic. Used to prevent the passage of moisture into walls.
LEVEL & PLUMB LEVEL: Checking something to see if it is horizontally true. PLUMB: Checking something to see if it is vertically true:
NOMINAL SIZE LUMBER NOMINAL SIZE LUMBER: The size in which material is known and sold, but differs from its actual size. (E.g. a 2" x 4" is actually 1 ½" x 3 ½").
H.V.A.C. H.V.A.C.: Is the common term used to describe Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems in a building.
CLIMATE CONTROL CLIMATE CONTROL: Methods that are used in a building to control the temperature (heat / air conditioning). Some sort of thermostat device usually does this.
CONTRACTOR & SUB- CONTRACTOR CONTRACTOR: An individual who is responsible for directing the entire construction operation from start to finish. SUB-CONTRACTOR: An individual who is responsible for one aspect of the construction process. (E.g. A plumber or an Electrician).
ELECTRICAL DEVICES ELECTRICAL DEVICES: Components used in a building that takes electrical power from one source to another. E.g. A light switch or an outlet.
D.W.V. D.W.V.: Sewage plumbing is often referred to as drainage, waste and vent plumbing.
STEEL STUDS STEEL STUDS: Wall studding made of steel, rather than wood. Steel has been used in commercial framing for years, but it is becoming more popular in residential framing.
APPRENTICE & O.Y.A.P. APPRENTICE: Someone who works in a skilled trade under the supervision of a journeyperson. Usually involves on the job and in- school training. O.Y.A.P.: The Ontario Youth Apprenticeship Program. Allows students to learn a skilled trade while completing their requirements for a High School Diploma.
ONTARIO BUILDING CODE ONTARIO BUILDING CODE: A set of minimum provisions respecting the safety of buildings with reference to public health, fire protection, and structural sufficiency.
BUILDING PERMIT & INSPECTOR BUILDING PERMIT: A permit obtained from your local municipality office. It is required before any construction begins. BUILDING INSPECTOR: Someone who inspects the on-going construction of either a new building, or renovations to an existing building.