Presentation on theme: "Social Stratification"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social Stratification Sociology4/22/2017Social StratificationPreviewSection 1: Systems of StratificationSection 2: The American Class SystemSection 3: PovertyChapter Wrap-UpChapter 9
2 Section 1: Systems of Stratification Read to DiscoverWhat are the characteristics of caste systems and class systems?How do the major theories of social stratification differ?
3 Section 1: Systems of Stratification Caste System:Closed and lifelongImmobility and inherited statusBased on specific occupationsAscribed statusClass System:Open and mobileReward is determined by achieved statusProperty, prestige, and power are important
4 Section 1: Systems of Stratification QuestionWhat are the major theories of social stratification?
5 Section 1: Systems of Stratification Cause of Stratification TheoryCause of StratificationCriticisms of TheoryFunctionalistStratification is needed to help society function smoothly by ensuring that specific roles are performed. Higher rewards guarantee that important roles that require more skill are filled. Society does not provide equal access to education and jobs. Lower-class talented people may be unable to contribute to society. Rewards do not always reflect the social values of roles.ConflictGroups compete for scarce resources. Those with power exploit and control others to maintain their position.Unequal rewards are based in part on differences in talents, skills, and desires among people.
6 Section 1: Systems of Stratification Functionalist Theorists—view stratification as a necessary feature of the social structure and argue that the more important a role and the more skill needed to perform it, the higher the rewardConflict Theorists—view stratification as a result of conflict over scarce resources and argue that groups who gain power then use that power to maintain their advantage
7 Section 2: The American Class System Read to DiscoverWhat are the characteristics of the American class system?How do different motivations and cultural values influence the American class system?
8 Section 2: The American Class System QuestionWhat are the characteristics of the American class system?
10 Section 2: The American Class System Upper Class—Attend prestigious universities; owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, top business executivesUpper Middle Class—Attend college or university; business executives, professionalsLower Middle Class—High school, some college; lower-level managers, skilled craftworkers, supervisors
11 Section 2: The American Class System Working Class—High school education; factory workers, clerical workers, lower-level salespeople, some craftworkersWorking Poor—Some high school; laborers, service workersUnderclass—Some high school; undesirable, low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare
12 Section 2: The American Class System QuestionHow do different motivations and cultural values influence the American class system?
13 Section 2: The American Class System Americans believe that people who possess enough ability and motivation will rise to the top.Motivations include finances, status, prestige.Such values influence Americans to try to do better financially than their parents and to help their children do the same.These values and motivations keep the American system open and mobile.
14 Section 3: PovertyRead to DiscoverWhat groups of Americans are affected by poverty?What steps have been taken by the federal government to lessen the effects of poverty?
15 What groups of Americans are affected by poverty? Section 3: PovertyQuestionWhat groups of Americans are affected by poverty?
16 Section 3: PovertyCharacteristics of Poor AmericansAge As an age group, children have the largest percentage in poverty.Race & Ethnicity African Americans and Hispanics are twice as likely as whites to be poor.Sex Women represent 57% of the poor. Female-headed households: 50%
17 Section 3: PovertyAge—Children have the largest percentage in poverty; 25% of Americans are under 18, but 35% of the poor are children; three times more African American and Hispanic children are poor than white children.Race and Ethnicity—African Americans and Hispanics are more than twice as likely as white Americans to be poor.Sex—Women are the largest segment (57%); female-headed households account for about half of all poor families; 34% of African American and Hispanic female-headed households are poor, as compared to only 20% of white female-headed households.
18 Section 3: PovertyGovernment attempts to reduce inequality through various social-welfare programs using two approaches:Transfer Payments—redistribution of money among various segments of society; major programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)Subsidies—transfer goods and services rather than cash; include the Food Stamp program, housing, school lunches, and Medicaid
19 Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding Main Ideas How do caste systems and class systems differ?How do the functionalist and conflict explanations of stratification differ?What are the six social classes recognized by most American sociologists?What is the poverty level, and how is it calculated?How can poverty affect the life chances of Americans?How have government programs to assist poor Americans changed in recent years?